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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 1475435, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1475435
Review Article

Monocyte Heterogeneity: Consequences for Monocyte-Derived Immune Cells

1Department of Oral Cell Biology and Functional Anatomy, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, Netherlands
2Department of Periodontology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), University of Amsterdam and VU University Amsterdam, MOVE Research Institute Amsterdam, Gustav Mahlerlaan 3004, 1081 LA Amsterdam, Netherlands

Received 4 March 2016; Accepted 12 June 2016

Academic Editor: Jacek Tabarkiewicz

Copyright © 2016 Sara Sprangers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Blood monocytes are precursors of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. They are a heterogeneous cell population with differences in size, phenotype, and function. Although monocytes maintain several tissue-specific populations of immune cells in homeostasis, their contribution to populations of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts is significantly increased in inflammation. Identification of a growing number of functionally different subsets of cells within populations of monocyte-derived immune cells has recently put monocyte heterogeneity into sharp focus. Here, we summarize recent findings in monocyte heterogeneity and their differentiation into dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts. We also discuss these advances in the context of the formation of functionally different monocyte-derived subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and osteoclasts.