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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4097642, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4097642
Research Article

Early Differentiation of Human CD11c+NK Cells with γδ T Cell Activation Properties Is Promoted by Dialyzable Leukocyte Extracts

1Oncology Research Unit, Oncology Hospital, Mexican Institute for Social Security, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, 06720 Mexico City, Mexico
2Department of Immunology, National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Colonia Santo Tomás, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
3Immunochemistry Research Unit, Medical Specialties Hospital, Mexican Institute for Social Security, Avenida Cuauhtémoc 330, Colonia Doctores, 06720 Mexico City, Mexico
4Unidad de Desarrollo e Investigación en Bioprocesos (UDIBI), National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Colonia Santo Tomás, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
5Unidad de Investigación, Desarrollo e Innovación Médica y Biotecnológica (UDIMEB), National School of Biological Sciences (ENCB), National Polytechnic Institute (IPN), Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n, Colonia Santo Tomás, 11340 Mexico City, Mexico
6Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City, Mexico

Received 26 March 2016; Revised 9 August 2016; Accepted 10 August 2016

Academic Editor: Takami Sato

Copyright © 2016 Dalia Ramírez-Ramírez et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Reconstitution of the hematopoietic system during immune responses and immunological and neoplastic diseases or upon transplantation depends on the emergent differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells within the bone marrow. Although in the last decade the use of dialyzable leukocyte extracts (DLE) as supportive therapy in both infectious and malignant settings has increased, its activity on the earliest stages of human hematopoietic development remains poorly understood. Here, we have examined the ability of DLE to promote replenishment of functional lymphoid lineages from CD34+ cells. Our findings suggest that DLE increases their differentiation toward a conspicuous CD56+CD16+CD11c+ NK-like cell population endowed with properties such as IFNy production, tumor cell cytotoxicity, and the capability of inducing γδ T lymphocyte proliferation. Of note, long-term coculture controlled systems showed the bystander effect of DLE-stromal cells by providing NK progenitors with signals to overproduce this cell subset. Thus, by direct effect on progenitor cells and through activation and remodeling of the supporting hematopoietic microenvironment, DLE may contribute a robust innate immune response by promoting the emerging lymphopoiesis of functional CD11c+ NK cells in a partially TLR-related manner. Unraveling the identity and mechanisms of the involved DLE components may be fundamental to advance the NK cell-based therapy field.