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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 4683607, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/4683607
Review Article

Immune Checkpoint Modulators: An Emerging Antiglioma Armamentarium

1Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

Received 15 September 2015; Revised 1 December 2015; Accepted 3 December 2015

Academic Editor: Daniel Olive

Copyright © 2016 Eileen S. Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Immune checkpoints have come to the forefront of cancer therapies as a powerful and promising strategy to stimulate antitumor T cell activity. Results from recent preclinical and clinical studies demonstrate how checkpoint inhibition can be utilized to prevent tumor immune evasion and both local and systemic immune suppression. This review encompasses the key immune checkpoints that have been found to play a role in tumorigenesis and, more specifically, gliomagenesis. The review will provide an overview of the existing preclinical and clinical data, antitumor efficacy, and clinical applications for each checkpoint with respect to GBM, as well as a summary of combination therapies with chemotherapy and radiation.