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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 6290682, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/6290682
Review Article

The Mechanisms Underlying Chronic Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritis from the Perspective of the Epigenetic Landscape

1Department of Rheumatology and Applied Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan
2Project Research Division, Research Center for Genomic Medicine, Saitama Medical University, Saitama, Japan

Received 24 September 2016; Revised 21 November 2016; Accepted 7 December 2016

Academic Editor: Alessandra Santos

Copyright © 2016 Yasuto Araki and Toshihide Mimura. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that is characterized by synovial hyperplasia and progressive joint destruction. The activation of RA synovial fibroblasts (SFs), also called fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), contributes significantly to perpetuation of the disease. Genetic and environmental factors have been reported to be involved in the etiology of RA but are insufficient to explain it. In recent years, accumulating results have shown the potential role of epigenetic mechanisms, including histone modifications, DNA methylation, and microRNAs, in the development of RA. Epigenetic mechanisms regulate chromatin state and gene transcription without any change in DNA sequence, resulting in the alteration of phenotypes in several cell types, especially RASFs. Epigenetic changes possibly provide RASFs with an activated phenotype. In this paper, we review the roles of epigenetic mechanisms relevant for the progression of RA.