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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 9151607, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9151607
Research Article

Influence of the Expression of Inflammatory Markers on Kidney after Fetal Programming in an Experimental Model of Renal Failure

1Discipline of General Pathology, Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
2Department of Health Sciences, Lavras Federal University, Lavras, MG, Brazil
3Discipline of Physiology, Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil
4Nephrology Division, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
5Department of Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences IV, University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP, Brazil
6Department of General Pathology, Institute of Tropical Pathology and Public Health, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, GO, Brazil

Received 20 August 2016; Revised 25 October 2016; Accepted 8 November 2016

Academic Editor: Margarete D. Bagatini

Copyright © 2016 Carlos Donizete Pereira Júnior et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objective. To evaluate the expression of inflammatory markers in experimental renal failure after fetal programming. Methods. The offspring aged two and five months were divided into four groups: CC (control dams, control offspring); DC (diabetic dams, control offspring); CFA (control dams, folic acid offspring, 250 mg/Kg); and DFA (diabetic dams, folic acid offspring). Gene expression of inflammatory markers MCP-1, IL-1, NOS3, TGF-β, TNF-α, and VEGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. Results. MCP-1 was increased in the CFA and DFA groups at two and five months of age, as well as in DC5 when compared to CC5. There was a higher expression of IL-1 in the CFA2, DFA2, and DC2 groups. There was a decrease in NOS3 and an increase in TNF-α in DFA5 in relation to CFA5. The gene expression of TGF-β increased in cases that had received folic acid at two and five months, and VEGF decreased in the CFA5 and DFA5 groups. DC5 showed increased VEGF expression in comparison with CC5. Conclusions. Gestational diabetes mellitus and folic acid both change the expression of inflammatory markers, thus demonstrating that the exposure to harmful agents in adulthood has a more severe impact in cases which underwent fetal reprogramming.