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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 9171632, 13 pages
Research Article

Rotavirus Recombinant VP6 Nanotubes Act as an Immunomodulator and Delivery Vehicle for Norovirus Virus-Like Particles

Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Biokatu 10, 33520 Tampere, Finland

Received 23 February 2016; Revised 5 July 2016; Accepted 19 July 2016

Academic Editor: Aurelia Rughetti

Copyright © 2016 Maria Malm et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We have recently shown that tubular form of rotavirus (RV) recombinant VP6 protein has an in vivo adjuvant effect on the immunogenicity of norovirus (NoV) virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine candidate. In here, we investigated in vitro effect of VP6 on antigen presenting cell (APC) activation and maturation and whether VP6 facilitates NoV VLP uptake by these APCs. Mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and dendritic cell line JAWSII were used as model APCs. Internalization of VP6, cell surface expression of CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility class II molecules, and cytokine and chemokine production were analyzed. VP6 nanotubes were efficiently internalized by APCs. VP6 upregulated the expression of cell surface activation and maturation molecules and induced secretion of several proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The mechanism of VP6 action was shown to be partially dependent on lipid raft-mediated endocytic pathway as shown by methyl-β-cyclodextrin inhibition on tumor necrosis factor α secretion. These findings add to the understanding of mechanism by which VP6 exerts its immunostimulatory and immunomodulatory actions and further support its use as a part of nonlive RV-NoV combination vaccine.