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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 9238290, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/9238290
Review Article

Recent Advances of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in Central Nervous System Disorders

1Department of Neurosurgery, Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
2Brain Research Institute, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China

Received 15 June 2016; Accepted 2 August 2016

Academic Editor: Menaka C. Thounaojam

Copyright © 2016 Keren Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that trigger the activation of caspases-1 and subsequently the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18. These cytokines play a critical role in mediating inflammation and innate immunity response. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is the best characterized, which has been demonstrated as a crucial role in various diseases. Here, we review recently described mechanisms that are involved in the activation and regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome. In addition, we summarize the recent researches on the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke, brain tumor, neurodegenerative diseases, and other CNS diseases. In conclusion, the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a promising therapeutic target for these CNS diseases.