Journal of Immunology Research / 2017 / Article / Fig 2

Research Article

Synergistic Antitumour Properties of viscumTT in Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma

Figure 2

viscumTT displays synergistic effects on mitochondrial membrane (∆Ψm) depolarisation and activation of CASP3, CASP8, and CASP9. RMS-13 cells were incubated with viscum, TT, and viscumTT in increasing concentrations for 24 h. (a) ∆Ψm depolarisation was analysed by JC-1 staining and flow cytometry. The protonophore carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), a mitochondrial membrane disruptor, was used as a positive control. (b) Active caspase assays were performed according to the manufacturer’s instructions to monitor activation of caspase-3 (CASP3), caspase-8 (CASP8), and caspase-9 (CASP9). All results are presented as means ± SD of three independent experiments. Webb’s fractional product (Fp) was calculated to assess synergism, values Fp > 1 display synergism. Mistletoe lectin (ML) and oleanolic acid (OA) concentrations were used as marker substances for viscum and TT, respectively.

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