Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 7045630, 11 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7045630
Review Article

Mannose-Binding Lectin: Biologic Characteristics and Role in the Susceptibility to Infections and Ischemia-Reperfusion Related Injury in Critically Ill Neonates

1Department of Medical and Surgical Neonatology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital (IRCCS), Piazza S. Onofrio 4, 165 Rome, Italy
2Department of Laboratories, Laboratory of Rheumatology, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital (IRCCS), Piazza S. Onofrio 4, 165 Rome, Italy
3Department of Pediatrics, Anna Meyer Children’s University Hospital, Viale Gaetano Pieraccini 24, 50139 Florence, Italy
4Department of Laboratories, Laboratory of Chemical Chemistry, Bambino Gesù Children’s Hospital (IRCCS), Piazza S. Onofrio 4, 165 Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Cinzia Auriti; ten.gbpo@itirua.aiznic

Received 6 August 2016; Revised 8 November 2016; Accepted 28 December 2016; Published 26 January 2017

Academic Editor: Fabiano Carvalho

Copyright © 2017 Cinzia Auriti et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Mannan-binding lectin: clinical significance and applications,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1572, no. 2-3, pp. 401–413, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. Sumiya, M. Super, P. Tabona et al., “Molecular basis of opsonic defect in immunodeficient children,” The Lancet, vol. 337, no. 8757, pp. 1569–1570, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. M. Scorza, R. Liguori, A. Elce, F. Salvatore, and G. Castaldo, “Biological role of mannose binding lectin: from newborns to centenarians,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 451, pp. 78–81, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. L. J. Schlapbach, M. Mattmann, S. Thiel et al., “Differential role of the lectin pathway of complement activation in susceptibility to neonatal sepsis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 153–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. P. Zanetta, “Mannose-binding lectins in cerebrum development,” Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology, vol. 32, pp. 75–96, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. F. De Benedetti, C. Auriti, L. E. D'Urbano et al., “Low serum levels of mannose binding lectin are a risk factor for neonatal sepsis,” Pediatric Research, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 325–328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Auriti, G. Prencipe, R. Inglese et al., “Role of mannose-binding lectin in nosocomial sepsis in critically ill neonates,” Human Immunology, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1084–1088, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Auriti, G. Prencipe, B. Caravale et al., “MBL2 gene polymorphisms increase the risk of adverse neurological outcome in preterm infants: a preliminary prospective study,” Pediatric Research, vol. 76, no. 5, pp. 464–469, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. Prencipe, C. Azzari, M. Moriondo et al., “Association between mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants,” Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 160–165, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. W. Turner, “Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in health and disease,” Immunobiology, vol. 199, no. 2, pp. 327–339, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. T. Kawasaki, “Structure and biology of mannan-binding protein, MBP, an important component of innate immunity,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, vol. 1473, no. 1, pp. 186–195, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Introduction to mannan-binding lectin,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 745–747, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. N. J. Klein, “Mannose-binding lectin: do we need it?” Molecular Immunology, vol. 42, no. 8, pp. 919–924, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. L. Worthley, P. G. Bardy, and C. G. Mullighan, “Mannose-binding lectin: biology and clinical implications,” Internal Medicine Journal, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 548–555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. P. Eisen and R. M. Minchinton, “Impact of mannose-binding lectin on susceptibility to infectious diseases,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 11, pp. 1496–1505, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. K. Takahashi, W. K. E. Ip, I. C. Michelow, and R. A. B. Ezekowitz, “The mannose-binding lectin: a prototypic pattern recognition molecule,” Current Opinion in Immunology, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Mori, T. Kawasaki, and I. Yamashina, “Subcellular distribution of the mannan-binding protein and its endogenous inhibitors in rat liver,” Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, vol. 232, no. 1, pp. 223–233, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Wild, D. Robinson, and B. Winchester, “Isolation of mannose-binding proteins from human and rat liver,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 210, no. 1, pp. 167–174, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. H. Bouwman, A. Roos, O. T. Terpstra et al., “Mannose binding lectin gene polymorphisms confer a major risk for severe infections after liver transplantation,” Gastroenterology, vol. 129, no. 2, pp. 408–414, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. D. Collard, R. Lekowski, J. E. Jordan, A. Agah, and G. L. Stahl, “Complement activation following oxidative stress,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 36, no. 13-14, pp. 941–948, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. D. Collard, A. Vakeva, M. A. Morrissey et al., “Complement activation after oxidative stress: role of the lectin complement pathway,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 156, no. 5, pp. 1549–1556, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Malhotra, A. C. Willis, A. Lopez Bernal, S. Thiel, and R. B. Sim, “Mannan-binding protein levels in human amniotic fluid during gestation and its interaction with collectin receptor from amnion cells,” Immunology, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 439–444, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  23. P. Garred, K. Brygge, C. H. Sorensen et al., “Mannan binding protein levels in plasma and upper airway secretions and frequency of genotypes in children with recurrence of otitis media,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 99–104, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  24. S. S. Bohlson, S. D. O'Conner, H. J. Hulsebus, M.-M. Ho, and D. A. Fraser, “Complement, C1Q, and C1q-related molecules regulate macrophage polarization,” Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 5, article no. 402, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. A. Fraser and A. J. Tenner, “Directing an appropriate immune response: the role of defense collagens and other soluble pattern recognition molecules,” Current Drug Targets, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 113–122, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. Nadesalingam, A. W. Dodds, K. B. M. Reid, and N. Palaniyar, “Mannose-binding lectin recognizes peptidoglycan via the N-acetyl glucosamine moiety, and inhibits ligand-induced proinflammatory effect and promotes chemokine production by macrophages,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 3, pp. 1785–1794, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J.-L. Casanova and L. Abel, “Human mannose-binding lectin in immunity: friend, foe, or both?” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 199, no. 10, pp. 1295–1299, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. S. Grumach, M. E. Ceccon, R. Rutz, A. Fertig, and M. Kirschfink, “Complement profile in neonates of different gestational ages,” Scandinavian Journal of Immunology, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 276–281, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. Neth, D. L. Jack, M. Johnson, N. J. Klein, and M. W. Turner, “Enhancement of complement activation and opsonophagocytosis by complexes of mannose-binding lectin with mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease after binding to Staphylococcus aureus,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 169, no. 8, pp. 4430–4436, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Thiel, T. Vorup-Jensen, C. M. Stover et al., “A second serine protease associated with mannan-binding lectin that activates complement,” Nature, vol. 386, no. 6624, pp. 506–510, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. Matsushita and T. Fujita, “Activation of the classical complement pathway by mannose-binding protein in association with a novel C1s-like serine protease,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 176, no. 6, pp. 1497–1502, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Matsushita and T. Fujita, “Cleavage of the third component of complement (C3) by mannose-binding protein-associated serine protease (MASP) with subsequent complement activation,” Immunobiology, vol. 194, no. 4-5, pp. 443–448, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. R. Dahl, S. Thiel, M. Matsushita et al., “MASP-3 and its association with distinct complexes of the mannan-binding lectin complement activation pathway,” Immunity, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 127–135, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. E. Degn, L. Jensen, A. G. Hansen et al., “Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 is crucial for lectin pathway activation in human serum whereas neither MASP-1 nor MASP-3 is required for alternative pathway function,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 189, no. 8, pp. 3957–3969, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Y. Liu, Y. Endo, D. Iwaki et al., “Human M-ficolin is a secretory protein that activates the lectin complement pathway,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 175, no. 5, pp. 3150–3156, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Matsushita, Y. Endo, and T. Fujita, “Cutting edge: complement-activating complex of ficolin and mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 164, no. 5, pp. 2281–2284, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Matsushita, M. Kuraya, N. Hamasaki, M. Tsujimura, H. Shiraki, and T. Fujita, “Activation of the lectin complement pathway by H-ficolin (Hakata antigen),” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 168, no. 7, pp. 3502–3506, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Zhang, K. Takahashi, E. M. Alicot et al., “Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 7, pp. 4727–4734, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Kuraya, M. Matsushita, Y. Endo, S. Thiel, and T. Fujita, “Expression of H-ficolin/Hakata antigen, mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MASP-3 by human glioma cell line T98G,” International Immunology, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 109–117, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. H. Morio, H. Kurata, R. Katsuyama, S. Oka, Y. Kozutsumi, and T. Kawasaki, “Renal expression of serum-type mannan-binding protein in rat,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 243, no. 3, pp. 770–774, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. T. Vorup-Jensen, E. S. Sørensen, U. B. Jensen et al., “Recombinant expression of human mannan-binding lectin,” International Immunopharmacology, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 677–687, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. S. Wagner, N. J. Lynch, W. Walter, W. J. Schwaeble, and M. Loos, “Differential expression of the murine mannose-binding lectins A and C in lymphoid and nonlymphoid organs and tissues,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 1462–1465, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. D. L. Grasso, L. Segat, E. Zocconi, O. Radillo, C. Trevisiol, and S. Crovella, “MBL expression in patients with recurrent tonsillitis,” International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, vol. 73, no. 11, pp. 1550–1553, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. Seyfarth, P. Garred, and H. O. Madsen, “Extra-hepatic transcription of the human mannose-binding lectin gene (mbl2) and the MBL-associated serine protease 1-3 genes,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 962–971, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. O. Babula, G. Lazdane, J. Kroica, W. J. Ledger, and S. S. Witkin, “Relation between recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis, vaginal concentrations of mannose-binding lectin, and a mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism in latvian women,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 733–737, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. V. Petersen, S. Thiel, and J. C. Jensenius, “The mannan-binding lectin pathway of complement activation: biology and disease association,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 38, no. 2-3, pp. 133–149, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. G. Ambrus, P. Gál, M. Kojima et al., “Natural substrates and inhibitors of mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 and -2: a study on recombinant catalytic fragments,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 170, no. 3, pp. 1374–1382, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. E. Taylor, P. M. Brickell, R. K. Craig, and J. A. Summerfield, “Structure and evolutionary origin of the gene encoding a human serum mannose-binding protein,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 262, no. 3, pp. 763–771, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. Sastry, G. A. Herman, L. Day et al., “The human mannose-binding protein gene. Exon structure reveals its evolutionary relationship to a human pulmonary surfactant gene and localization to chromosome 10,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 170, no. 4, pp. 1175–1189, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. P. Garred, F. Larsen, H. O. Madsen, and C. Koch, “Mannose-binding lectin deficiency—revisited,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 40, no. 2-4, pp. 73–84, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. O. Madsen, P. Garred, S. Thiel et al., “Interplay between promoter and structural gene variants control basal serum level of mannan-binding protein,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 3013–3020, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. H. O. Madsen, P. Garred, J. A. L. Kurtzhals et al., “A new frequent allele is the missing link in the structural polymorphism of the human mannan-binding protein,” Immunogenetics, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 37–44, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. J. Lipscombe, M. Sumiya, A. V. S. Hill et al., “High frequencies in African and non-African populations of independent mutations in the mannose binding protein gene,” Human Molecular Genetics, vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 709–715, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. Steffensen, S. Thiel, K. Varming, C. Jersild, and J. C. Jensenius, “Detection of structural gene mutations and promoter polymorphisms in the mannan-binding lectin (MBL) gene by polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers,” Journal of Immunological Methods, vol. 241, no. 1-2, pp. 33–42, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. G. L. Sorensen, I. Petersen, S. Thiel et al., “Genetic influences on Mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and Mannan-binding lectin associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) activity,” Genetic Epidemiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 31–41, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Matsushita, S. Thiel, J. C. Jensenius, I. Terai, and T. Fujita, “Proteolytic activities of two types of mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 2637–2642, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. C. A. Farrar, E. Asgari, W. J. Schwaeble, and S. H. Sacks, “Which pathways trigger the role of complement in ischaemia/reperfusion injury?” Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 19, no. 3, p. 341, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  58. M. Zhang, K. Takahashi, E. M. Alicot et al., “Activation of the lectin pathway by natural IgM in a model of ischemia/reperfusion injury,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 177, no. 7, pp. 4727–4734, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. J. E. Jordan, M. C. Montalto, and G. L. Stahl, “Inhibition of mannose-binding lectin reduces postischemic myocardial reperfusion injury,” Circulation, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1413–1418, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. L. Hart, K. A. Ceonzo, L. A. Shaffer et al., “Gastrointestinal ischemia-reperfusion injury is lectin complement pathway dependent without involving C1q,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 174, no. 10, pp. 6373–6380, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. B. De Vries, S. J. Walter, C. J. Peutz-Kootstra, T. G. A. M. Wolfs, L. W. E. Van Heurn, and W. A. Buurman, “The mannose-binding lectin-pathway is involved in complement activation in the course of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 165, no. 5, pp. 1677–1688, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. R. Gesuete, C. Storini, A. Fantin et al., “Recombinant C1 inhibitor in brain ischemic injury,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 332–342, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. L. Lau, S. Y. Chan, M. W. Turner, J. Fong, and J. Karlberg, “Mannose-binding protein in preterm infants: developmental profile and clinical significance,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 649–654, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. M. Dean, R. M. Minchinton, S. Heatley, and D. P. Eisen, “Mannose binding lectin acute phase activity in patients with severe infection,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 346–352, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. P. Eisen, M. M. Dean, M. A. Boermeester et al., “Low serum mannose-binding lectin level increases the risk of death due to pneumococcal infection,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 510–516, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. D. P. Eisen, M. M. Dean, P. Thomas et al., “Low mannose-binding lectin function is associated with sepsis in adult patients,” FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 274–282, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. G. De Pascale, S. L. Cutuli, M. A. Pennisi, and M. Antonelli, “The role of mannose-binding lectin in severe sepsis and septic shock,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2013, Article ID 625803, 8 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. L. P. Gravina, C. Crespo, H. Giugno et al., “Mannose-binding lectin gene as a modifier of the cystic fibrosis phenotype in Argentinean pediatric patients,” Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 78–83, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. P. Garred, T. Pressler, H. O. Madsen et al., “Association of mannose-binding lectin gene heterogeneity with severity of lung disease and survival in cystic fibrosis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 104, no. 4, pp. 431–437, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. O. Neth, I. Hann, M. W. Turner, and N. J. Klein, “Deficiency of mannose-binding lectin and burden of infection in children with malignancy: a prospective study,” The Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9282, pp. 614–618, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. N. A. Peterslund, C. Koch, J. C. Jensenius, and S. Thiel, “Association between deficiency of mannose-binding lectin and severe infections after chemotherapy,” Lancet, vol. 358, no. 9282, pp. 637–638, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. J. D. Chalmers, G. B. Fleming, A. T. Hill, and D. C. Kilpatrick, “Impact of mannose-binding lectin insufficiency on the course of cystic fibrosis: a review and meta-analysis,” Glycobiology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 271–282, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. Moreto, C. Fariñas-Alvarez, M. Puente et al., “Mannose-binding lectin gene variants and infections in patients receiving autologous stem cell transplantation,” BMC Immunology, vol. 15, no. 1, article 17, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. Q.-Q. Wan, Q.-F. Ye, and J.-D. Zhou, “Mannose-binding lectin 2 and ficolin-2 gene polymorphisms influence the susceptibility to bloodstream infections in kidney transplant recipients,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 3289–3292, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. H. L. Stevenson, A. Amador, J. McCue et al., “Mannose binding lectin (mbl2) haplotype frequencies in solid organ transplant patients and correlation with MBL protein levels—evaluation of complement-mediated effector pathway deficiency,” Transplant Immunology, vol. 28, no. 2-3, pp. 73–80, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Damman and M. A. Seelen, “Mannan binding lectin: a two-faced regulator of renal allograft injury?” Kidney International, vol. 83, no. 2, pp. 191–193, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. S. J. Budd, R. M. Aris, A. A. Medaiyese, S. L. Tilley, and I. P. Neuringer, “Increased plasma mannose binding lectin levels are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans after lung transplantation,” Respiratory Research, vol. 13, article no. 56, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. V. Pradhan, P. Surve, and K. Ghosh, “Mannose binding lectin (MBL) in autoimmunity and its role in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),” Journal of Association of Physicians of India, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 688–690, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. D. Golshayan, A. Wójtowicz, S. Bibert et al., “Polymorphisms in the lectin pathway of complement activation influence the incidence of acute rejection and graft outcome after kidney transplantation,” Kidney International, vol. 89, no. 4, pp. 927–938, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. D. Eurich, S. Boas-Knoop, A. Yahyazadeh et al., “Role of mannose-binding lectin-2 polymorphism in the development of acute cellular rejection after transplantation for hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease,” Transplant Infectious Disease, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 488–495, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. M. Ibernon, F. Moreso, and D. Serón, “Subclinical rejection in renal transplants is associated with low serum mannose-binding lectin levels,” Kidney International Supplements, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 36–39, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. K. E. Carroll, M. M. Dean, S. L. Heatley et al., “High levels of mannose-binding lectin are associated with poor outcomes after lung transplantation,” Transplantation, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1044–1049, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. E. Fildes, S. M. Shaw, A. H. Walker et al., “Mannose-binding lectin deficiency offers protection from acute graft rejection after heart transplantation,” Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, vol. 27, no. 12, pp. 1353–1356, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. A. E. Fiane, T. Ueland, S. Simonsen et al., “Low mannose-binding lectin and increased complement activation correlate to allograft vasculopathy, ischaemia, and rejection after human heart transplantation,” European Heart Journal, vol. 26, no. 16, pp. 1660–1665, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S.-Q. Zhao and Z. Hu, “Mannose-binding lectin and diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 345–350, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. L.-Z. Guan, Q. Tong, and J. Xu, “Elevated serum levels of mannose-binding lectin and diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes,” PLoS ONE, vol. 10, no. 3, Article ID e0119699, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. N. Zhang, M. Zhuang, A. Ma et al., “Association of levels of Mannose-binding lectin and the MBL2gene with type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 12, Article ID e83059, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. T. K. Hansen, C. Forsblom, M. Saraheimo et al., “Association between mannose-binding lectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and the progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1517–1524, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. Saraheimo, C. Forsblom, T. K. Hansen et al., “Increased levels of mannan-binding lectin in type 1 diabetic patients with incipient and overt nephropathy,” Diabetologia, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 198–202, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. S. Świerzko, M. A. Bartłomiejczyk, A. Brzostek et al., “Mycobacterial antigen 85 complex (Ag85) as a target for ficolins and mannose-binding lectin,” International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 306, no. 4, pp. 212–221, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. A. Bartlomiejczyk, A. S. Swierzko, A. Brzostek, J. Dziadek, and M. Cedzynski, “Interaction of lectin pathway of complement-activating pattern recognition molecules with Mycobacteria,” Clinical and Experimental Immunology, vol. 178, no. 2, pp. 310–319, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. N. Singla, D. Gupta, A. Joshi, N. Batra, J. Singh, and N. Birbian, “Association of mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism with tuberculosis susceptibility and sputum conversion time,” International Journal of Immunogenetics, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 10–14, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. C. Søborg, H. O. Madsen, Å. B. Andersen, T. Lillebaek, A. Kok-Jensen, and P. Garred, “Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms in clinical tuberculosis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 188, no. 5, pp. 777–782, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. A. Mishra, J. S. Antony, P. Gai et al., “Mannose-binding Lectin (MBL) as a susceptible host factor influencing Indian Visceral Leishmaniasis,” Parasitology International, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 591–596, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. F. J. De Araujo, T. G. Mesquita, L. D. O. Da Silva et al., “Functional variations in MBL2gene are associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Amazonas state of Brazil,” Genes and Immunity, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 284–288, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. M. Asgharzadeh, A. Mazloumi, H. S. Kafil, and A. Ghazanchaei, “Mannose-binding lectin gene and promoter polymorphism in visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum,” Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 1850–1854, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. D. P. Alonso, A. F. B. Ferreira, P. E. M. Ribolla et al., “Genotypes of the mannan-binding lectin gene and susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis and clinical complications,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 195, no. 8, pp. 1212–1217, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. A. R. Ambrosio and I. J. T. De Messias-Reason, “Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis: interaction of mannose-binding lectin with surface glycoconjugates and complement activation. An antibody-independent defence mechanism,” Parasite Immunology, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 333–340, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. I. K. F. De Miranda Santos, C. H. N. Costa, H. Krieger et al., “Mannan-binding lectin enhances susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 69, no. 8, pp. 5212–5215, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. M. Matsushita, H. Miyakawa, A. Tanaka et al., “Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the mannose-binding lectin are associated with susceptibility to primary biliary cirrhosis,” Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 251–257, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. L. H. Bouwman, B. O. Roep, and A. Roos, “Mannose-binding lectin: clinical implications for infection, transplantation, and autoimmunity,” Human Immunology, vol. 67, no. 4-5, pp. 247–256, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. K. J. Fidler, P. Wilson, J. C. Davies, M. W. Turner, M. J. Peters, and N. J. Klein, “Increased incidence and severity of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients deficient in mannose-binding lectin,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 30, no. 7, pp. 1438–1445, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. A. C. Gordon, U. Waheed, T. K. Hansen et al., “Mannose-binding lectin polymorphisms in severe sepsis: relationship to levels, incidence, and outcome,” Shock, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 88–93, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. R. C. M. Stephens, K. Fidler, P. Wilson et al., “Endotoxin immunity and the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in critically ill children,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 286–294, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. A. B. Dzwonek, O. W. Neth, R. Thiébaut et al., “The role of mannose-binding lectin in susceptibility to infection in preterm neonates,” Pediatric Research, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 680–685, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  106. O. A. Koroglu, H. Onay, G. Erdemir et al., “Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism and early neonatal outcome in preterm infants,” Neonatology, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 305–312, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. J. Israëls, F. N. J. Frakking, L. C. M. Kremer, M. Offringa, T. W. Kuijpers, and M. D. Van De Wetering, “Mannose-binding lectin and infection risk in newborns: a systematic review,” Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. F452–F461, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. W. A. Wahab Mohamed and M. A. Saeed, “Mannose-binding lectin serum levels in neonatal sepsis and septic shock,” Journal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 411–414, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. A. St Swierzko, A. Szala, M. Cedzynski et al., “Mannan-binding lectin genotypes and genotype-phenotype relationships in a large cohort of Polish neonates,” Human Immunology, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 68–72, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. L. J. Schlapbach, P. Latzin, N. Regamey et al., “Mannose-binding lectin cord blood levels and respiratory symptoms during infancy: a prospective birth cohort study,” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 219–226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. S. Swierzko, M. Cedzynski, I. Domzalska-Popadiuk et al., “Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) in a large cohort of neonates and its clinical associations,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 46, no. 8-9, pp. 1696–1701, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. A.-M. J. Oudshoorn, F. A. M. van den Dungen, K. P. Bach et al., “Mannose-binding lectin in term newborns and their mothers: genotypic and phenotypic relationship,” Human Immunology, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 344–348, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. M.-A. Dommergues, J. Patkai, J.-C. Renauld, P. Evrard, and P. Gressens, “Proinflammatory cytokines and interleukin-9 exacerbate excitotoxic lesions of the newborn murine neopallium,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 47, no. 1, pp. 54–63, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. J. Patkai, B. Mesples, M.-A. Dommergues et al., “Deleterious effects of IL-9 -activated mast cells and neuroprotection by antihistamine drugs in the developing mouse brain,” Pediatric Research, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 222–230, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. K. B. Nelson, J. M. Dambrosia, J. K. Grether, and T. M. Phillips, “Neonatal cytokines and coagulation factors in children with cerebral palsy,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 665–675, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. P. H. Yager, Z. You, T. Qin et al., “Mannose binding lectin gene deficiency increases susceptibility to traumatic brain injury in mice,” Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 1030–1039, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. Cervera, A. M. Planas, C. Justicia et al., “Genetically-defined deficiency of mannose-binding lectin is associated with protection after experimental stroke in mice and outcome in human stroke,” PLoS ONE, vol. 5, no. 2, Article ID e8433, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. D. C. Kilpatrick, “Consensus statement on the future of mannan-binding lectin (MBL)-replacement therapy,” Biochemical Society Transactions, vol. 31, no. 4, p. 776, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus