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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7232361, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7232361
Review Article

The Role of Type III Interferons in Hepatitis C Virus Infection and Therapy

Institute for Experimental Virology, Centre for Experimental and Clinical Infection Research (TWINCORE), Hannover, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Gisa Gerold; ed.erocniwt@dloreg.asig

Received 11 November 2016; Accepted 9 January 2017; Published 1 February 2017

Academic Editor: Frank A. Schildberg

Copyright © 2017 Janina Bruening et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

The human interferon (IFN) response is a key innate immune mechanism to fight virus infection. IFNs are host-encoded secreted proteins, which induce IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) with antiviral properties. Among the three classes of IFNs, type III IFNs, also called IFN lambdas (IFNLs), are an essential component of the innate immune response to hepatitis C virus (HCV). In particular, human polymorphisms in IFNL gene loci correlate with hepatitis C disease progression and with treatment response. To date, the underlying mechanisms remain mostly elusive; however it seems clear that viral infection of the liver induces IFNL responses. As IFNL receptors show a more restricted tissue expression than receptors for other classes of IFNs, IFNL treatment has reduced side effects compared to the classical type I IFN treatment. In HCV therapy, however, IFNL will likely not play an important role as highly effective direct acting antivirals (DAA) exist. Here, we will review our current knowledge on IFNL gene expression, protein properties, signaling, ISG induction, and its implications on HCV infection and treatment. Finally, we will discuss the lessons learnt from the HCV and IFNL field for virus infections beyond hepatitis C.