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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2017, Article ID 8512847, 9 pages
Research Article

Meta-Analysis of Pulmonary Transcriptomes from Differently Primed Mice Identifies Molecular Signatures to Differentiate Immune Responses following Bordetella pertussis Challenge

1Institute for Translational Vaccinology (Intravacc), Bilthoven, Netherlands
2Division of Drug Delivery Technology, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Leiden, Netherlands
3Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands

Correspondence should be addressed to René H. M. Raeven; ln.ccavartni@nevear.ener

Received 17 June 2016; Revised 16 August 2016; Accepted 14 December 2016; Published 24 January 2017

Academic Editor: Menaka C. Thounaojam

Copyright © 2017 René H. M. Raeven et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Respiratory infection with Bordetella pertussis leads to severe effects in the lungs. The resulting immunity and also immunization with pertussis vaccines protect against disease, but the induced type of immunity and longevity of the response are distinct. In this study the effects of priming, by either vaccination or infection, on a subsequent pathogen encounter were studied. To that end, three postchallenge transcriptome datasets of previously primed mice were combined and compared to the responses in unprimed control mice. In total, 205 genes showed different transcription activity. A coexpression network analysis assembled these genes into 27 clusters, combined into six groups with overlapping biological function. Local pulmonary immunity was only present in mice with infection-induced immunity. Complement-mediated responses were more prominent in mice immunized with an outer membrane vesicle pertussis vaccine than in mice that received a whole-cell pertussis vaccine. Additionally, 46 genes encoding for secreted proteins may serve as markers in blood for the degree of protection (Cxcl9, Gp2, and Pla2g2d), intensity of infection (Retnla, Saa3, Il6, and Il1b), or adaptive recall responses (Ighg, C1qb). The molecular signatures elucidated in this study contribute to better understanding of functional interactions in challenge-induced responses in relation to pertussis immunity.