Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 1943497, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1943497
Review Article

Obesity-Related Asthma: Immune Regulation and Potential Targeted Therapies

1Department of Pathogeny Biology, College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
3Department of Intensive Care Unit, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
4Department of Interventional Therapy, First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Jie Ma; nc.ude.ulj@eij_am and Fang Wang; nc.ude.ulj@fw

Received 20 October 2017; Revised 24 March 2018; Accepted 6 May 2018; Published 28 June 2018

Academic Editor: Hector Rodriguez Cetina Biefer

Copyright © 2018 Yuze Yuan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. W. Gregg and J. E. Shaw, “Global health effects of overweight and obesity,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 377, no. 1, pp. 80-81, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. Gross, M. Pawlak, P. Lefebvre, and B. Staels, “PPARs in obesity-induced T2DM, dyslipidaemia and NAFLD,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 36–49, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. A. O’Connor, C. V. Evans, B. U. Burda, E. S. Walsh, M. Eder, and P. Lozano, “Screening for obesity and intervention for weight management in children and adolescents: evidence report and systematic review for the US preventive services task force,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 317, no. 23, pp. 2427–2444, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. W. Schwartz, R. J. Seeley, L. M. Zeltser et al., “Obesity pathogenesis: an endocrine society scientific statement,” Endocrine Reviews, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 267–296, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. Global Initiative for Asthma, “Global strategy for asthma management and prevention,” 2018, http://www.ginathma.org.
  6. P. D. Freitas, P. G. Ferreira, A. G. Silva et al., “The role of exercise in a weight-loss program on clinical control in obese adults with asthma. A randomized controlled trial,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 32–42, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. A. Scott, L. G. Wood, and P. G. Gibson, “Role of obesity in asthma: mechanisms and management strategies,” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, vol. 17, no. 8, p. 53, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. L. G. Wood, “Asthma in the obese: a big and growing problem,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 195, no. 1, pp. 4-5, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. D. T. Umetsu, “Mechanisms by which obesity impacts upon asthma,” Thorax, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 174–177, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y.-C. Kuan, T. Hashidume, T. Shibata et al., “Heat shock protein 90 modulates lipid homeostasis by regulating the stability and function of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) and SREBP cleavage-activating protein,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 292, no. 7, pp. 3016–3028, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “A proteolytic pathway that controls the cholesterol content of membranes, cells, and blood,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 96, no. 20, pp. 11041–11048, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. Shimano and R. Sato, “SREBP-regulated lipid metabolism: convergent physiology-divergent pathophysiology,” Nature Reviews Endocrinology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 710–730, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. S. Rong, V. A. Cortés, S. Rashid et al., “Expression of SREBP-1c requires SREBP-2-mediated generation of a sterol ligand for LXR in livers of mice,” eLife, vol. 6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. S. Brown and J. L. Goldstein, “The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor,” Cell, vol. 89, no. 3, pp. 331–340, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L. A. J. O'Neill, R. J. Kishton, and J. Rathmell, “A guide to immunometabolism for immunologists,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 553–565, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. Li, Y.-T. Oh, P. Yue, F. R. Khuri, and S.-Y. Sun, “Inhibition of mTOR complex 2 induces GSK3/FBXW7-dependent degradation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and suppresses lipogenesis in cancer cells,” Oncogene, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 642–650, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y.-K. Seo, H. K. Chong, A. M. Infante, S.-S. Im, X. Xie, and T. F. Osborne, “Genome-wide analysis of SREBP-1 binding in mouse liver chromatin reveals a preference for promoter proximal binding to a new motif,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 106, no. 33, pp. 13765–13769, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. S. van Kempen, M. H. Wenink, E. F. A. Leijten, T. R. D. J. Radstake, and M. Boes, “Perception of self: distinguishing autoimmunity from autoinflammation,” Nature Reviews Rheumatology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 483–492, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. Y. Oishi, N. J. Spann, V. M. Link et al., “SREBP1 contributes to resolution of pro-inflammatory TLR4 signaling by reprogramming fatty acid metabolism,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 412–427, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Yaron, F. Naider, and S. Scharpe, “Proline-dependent structural and biological properties of peptides and proteins,” Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 31–81, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. J. Drucker, “The role of gut hormones in glucose homeostasis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 24–32, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. H. A. Muskiet, M. M. Smits, L. M. Morsink, and M. Diamant, “The gut-renal axis: do incretin-based agents confer renoprotection in diabetes?” Nature Reviews Nephrology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 88–103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. T. Tanaka, D. Camerini, B. Seed et al., “Cloning and functional expression of the T cell activation antigen CD 26,” Journal of Immunology, vol. 149, no. 2, pp. 481–486, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  24. K. Rufinatscha, B. Radlinger, J. Dobner et al., “Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 impairs insulin signaling and promotes lipid accumulation in hepatocytes,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 485, no. 2, pp. 366–371, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. E. Mulvihill, “Dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitor therapy in type 2 diabetes: control of the incretin axis and regulation of postprandial glucose and lipid metabolism,” Peptides, vol. 100, pp. 158–164, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. N. Matikainen, S. Mänttäri, A. Schweizer et al., “Vildagliptin therapy reduces postprandial intestinal triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles in patients with type 2 diabetes,” Diabetologia, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2049–2057, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. W. Yano, N. Inoue, S. Ito et al., “Mechanism of lipid-lowering action of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, anagliptin, in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice,” Journal of Diabetes Investigation, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 155–160, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. H. Motohashi and M. Yamamoto, “Nrf2-Keap1 defines a physiologically important stress response mechanism,” Trends in Molecular Medicine, vol. 10, no. 11, pp. 549–557, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. N. Nagata, L. Xu, S. Kohno et al., “Glucoraphanin ameliorates obesity and insulin resistance through adipose tissue browning and reduction of metabolic endotoxemia in mice,” Diabetes, vol. 66, no. 5, pp. 1222–1236, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Begley, C. G. M. Gahan, and C. Hill, “The interaction between bacteria and bile,” FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 625–651, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. A. Joyce, J. MacSharry, P. G. Casey et al., “Regulation of host weight gain and lipid metabolism by bacterial bile acid modification in the gut,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 111, no. 20, pp. 7421–7426, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Everard, V. Lazarevic, M. Derrien et al., “Responses of gut microbiota and glucose and lipid metabolism to prebiotics in genetic obese and diet-induced leptin-resistant mice,” Diabetes, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 2775–2786, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. Serino, E. Luche, S. Gres et al., “Metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet is associated with a change in the gut microbiota,” Gut, vol. 61, no. 4, pp. 543–553, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Everard, C. Belzer, L. Geurts et al., “Cross-talk between Akkermansia muciniphila and intestinal epithelium controls diet-induced obesity,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 110, no. 22, pp. 9066–9071, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. D. Porras, E. Nistal, S. Martínez-Flórez et al., “Protective effect of quercetin on high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in mice is mediated by modulating intestinal microbiota imbalance and related gut-liver axis activation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 102, pp. 188–202, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Schneeberger, A. Everard, A. G. Gómez-Valadés et al., “Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. Q. de Aguiar Vallim, E. J. Tarling, and P. A. Edwards, “Pleiotropic roles of bile acids in metabolism,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 657–669, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. A. J. Cox, N. P. West, and A. W. Cripps, “Obesity, inflammation, and the gut microbiota,” The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 207–215, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Fernandes, W. Su, S. Rahat-Rozenbloom, T. M. S. Wolever, and E. M. Comelli, “Adiposity, gut microbiota and faecal short chain fatty acids are linked in adult humans,” Nutrition & Diabetes, vol. 4, no. 6, article e121, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. C. Chen, G. H. Dong, K. C. Lin, and Y. L. Lee, “Gender difference of childhood overweight and obesity in predicting the risk of incident asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Obesity Reviews, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 222–231, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. U. Frey, P. Latzin, J. Usemann, J. Maccora, U. Zumsteg, and S. Kriemler, “Asthma and obesity in children: current evidence and potential systems biology approaches,” Allergy, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 26–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. Granell, A. J. Henderson, D. M. Evans et al., “Effects of BMI, fat mass, and lean mass on asthma in childhood: a Mendelian randomization study,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 11, no. 7, article e1001669, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Barros, P. Moreira, P. Padrão et al., “Obesity increases the prevalence and the incidence of asthma and worsens asthma severity,” Clinical Nutrition, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 1068–1074, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Hampton, “Studies probe links between childhood asthma and obesity,” JAMA, vol. 311, no. 17, pp. 1718-1719, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. L. P. Boulet, “Asthma and obesity,” Clinical & Experimental Allergy, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 8–21, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. M. Wensveen, S. Valentić, M. Šestan, T. Turk Wensveen, and B. Polić, “The “Big Bang” in obese fat: events initiating obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation,” European Journal of Immunology, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 2446–2456, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. R. Medzhitov, “Origin and physiological roles of inflammation,” Nature, vol. 454, no. 7203, pp. 428–435, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. H. Tashiro, K. Takahashi, H. Sadamatsu et al., “Saturated fatty acid increases lung macrophages and augments house dust mite-induced airway inflammation in mice fed with high-fat diet,” Inflammation, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 1072–1086, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. Yu, L. Zhu, H. Li et al., “Influence of gender on OVA-induced airway inflammation in C57/B6J mice on a high-fat diet,” European Journal of Inflammation, vol. 16, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. H. A. Periyalil, L. G. Wood, T. A. Wright et al., “Obese asthmatics are characterized by altered adipose tissue macrophage activation,” Clinical & Experimental Allergy, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. N. Lumeng, S. M. DeYoung, J. L. Bodzin, and A. R. Saltiel, “Increased inflammatory properties of adipose tissue macrophages recruited during diet-induced obesity,” Diabetes, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 16–23, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. Y. Tian, L. Gao, Y. Guo, and Y. Xu, “Short-term phlorizin treatment attenuates adipose tissue inflammation without alerting obesity in high-fat diet fed mice,” Journal of Food Biochemistry, vol. 41, no. 6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. C. Crewe, Y. A. An, and P. E. Scherer, “The ominous triad of adipose tissue dysfunction: inflammation, fibrosis, and impaired angiogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 127, no. 1, pp. 74–82, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. S. Legrand-Poels, N. Esser, L. L’homme, A. Scheen, N. Paquot, and J. Piette, “Free fatty acids as modulators of the NLRP3 inflammasome in obesity/type 2 diabetes,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 131–141, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. C. Brightling, M. Berry, and Y. Amrani, “Targeting TNF-α: a novel therapeutic approach for asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 1, pp. 5–10, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. M. Chehimi, H. Vidal, and A. Eljaafari, “Pathogenic role of IL-17-producing immune cells in obesity, and related inflammatory diseases,” Journal of Clinical Medicine, vol. 6, no. 7, p. 68, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. E. D. Telenga, S. W. Tideman, H. A. M. Kerstjens et al., “Obesity in asthma: more neutrophilic inflammation as a possible explanation for a reduced treatment response,” Allergy, vol. 67, no. 8, pp. 1060–1068, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. O. Sideleva, K. Black, and A. E. Dixon, “Effects of obesity and weight loss on airway physiology and inflammation in asthma,” Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 455–458, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. D.-V. Nguyen, A. Linderholm, A. Haczku, and N. Kenyon, “Glucagon-like peptide 1: a potential anti-inflammatory pathway in obesity-related asthma,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 180, pp. 139–143, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. V. Apostolopoulos, M. P. J. de Courten, L. Stojanovska, G. L. Blatch, K. Tangalakis, and B. de Courten, “The complex immunological and inflammatory network of adipose tissue in obesity,” Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 43–57, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. S. Talukdar, D. Y. Oh, G. Bandyopadhyay et al., “Neutrophils mediate insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet through secreted elastase,” Nature Medicine, vol. 18, no. 9, pp. 1407–1412, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Y. F. Halim, C. A. Steer, L. Mathä et al., “Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are critical for the initiation of adaptive T helper 2 cell-mediated allergic lung inflammation,” Immunity, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 425–435, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. Y. Zhou, X. Yu, H. Chen et al., “Leptin deficiency shifts mast cells toward anti-inflammatory actions and protects mice from obesity and diabetes by polarizing M2 macrophages,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1045–1058, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. J. Hubler and A. J. Kennedy, “Role of lipids in the metabolism and activation of immune cells,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 34, pp. 1–7, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. A. Shore, “Mechanistic basis for obesity-related increases in ozone-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in mice,” Annals of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 14, Supplement_5, pp. S357–S362, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. Maggi, G. Montaini, A. Mazzoni et al., “Human circulating group 2 innate lymphoid cells can express CD154 and promote IgE production,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 139, no. 3, pp. 964–976.e4, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. Huang, B. E. del-Río-Navarro, S. Torres-Alcántara et al., “Adipokines, asymmetrical dimethylarginine, and pulmonary function in adolescents with asthma and obesity,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 153–161, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Galic, J. S. Oakhill, and G. R. Steinberg, “Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ,” Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, vol. 316, no. 2, pp. 129–139, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. C. Nowak, J. Sundström, S. Gustafsson et al., “Protein biomarkers for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes risk in two large community cohorts,” Diabetes, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 276–284, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. H.-S. Moon, G. Matarese, A. M. Brennan et al., “Efficacy of metreleptin in obese patients with type 2 diabetes: cellular and molecular pathways underlying leptin tolerance,” Diabetes, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 1647–1656, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. K. J. Hasenkrug, “The leptin connection: regulatory T cells and autoimmunity,” Immunity, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 143–145, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. X.-M. Mai, Y. Chen, and D. Krewski, “Does leptin play a role in obesity–asthma relationship?” Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 207–212, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. H. Zheng, X. Zhang, E. F. Castillo, Y. Luo, M. Liu, and X. O. Yang, “Leptin enhances TH2 and ILC2 responses in allergic airway disease,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 291, no. 42, pp. 22043–22052, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Kubo, “Innate and adaptive type 2 immunity in lung allergic inflammation,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 162–172, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W. Hao, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Wang, L. Sun, and W. Han, “Leptin positively regulates MUC5AC production and secretion induced by interleukin-13 in human bronchial epithelial cells,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 493, no. 2, pp. 979–984, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. S. Martinez, A. Campa, R. Marlink et al., “Higher leptin levels are associated with obesity and slower HIV disease progression,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 964–981, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  77. A. Salah, M. Ragab, W. Mansour, and M. Taher, “Leptin and adiponectin are valuable serum markers explaining obesity/bronchial asthma interrelationship,” Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 529–533, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. G. Fantuzzi, “Adiponectin and inflammation: consensus and controversy,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 121, no. 2, pp. 326–330, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Elfeky, R. Kaede, Y. Okamatsu-Ogura, and K. Kimura, “Adiponectin inhibits LPS-induced HMGB1 release through an AMP kinase and heme oxygenase-1-dependent pathway in RAW 264 macrophage cells,” Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2016, 9 pages, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. Y. Luo and M. Liu, “Adiponectin: a versatile player of innate immunity,” Journal of Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 120–128, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. Y. Hayashikawa, M. Iwata, M. Inomata et al., “Association of serum adiponectin with asthma and pulmonary function in the Japanese population,” Endocrine Journal, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 695–709, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. M. Bednarska-Makaruk, A. Graban, A. Wiśniewska et al., “Association of adiponectin, leptin and resistin with inflammatory markers and obesity in dementia,” Biogerontology, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 561–580, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. H. M. Al-Asy and M. M. Mabrouk, “Serum resistin as an asthma marker and predictor of inhaled corticosteroid response in bronchial asthma in children,” Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 391–394, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  84. J. Gray, K. Oehrle, G. Worthen, T. Alenghat, J. Whitsett, and H. Deshmukh, “Intestinal commensal bacteria mediate lung mucosal immunity and promote resistance of newborn mice to infection,” Science Translational Medicine, vol. 9, no. 376, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. S. Tavares da Silva, C. Araújo dos Santos, and J. Bressan, “Intestinal microbiota; relevance to obesity and modulation by prebiotics and probiotics,” Nutricion Hospitalaria, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1039–1048, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  86. R. Caesar, V. Tremaroli, P. Kovatcheva-Datchary, P. D. Cani, and F. Bäckhed, “Crosstalk between gut microbiota and dietary lipids aggravates wat inflammation through tlr signaling,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 658–668, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. K. Tuomi and J. V. Logomarsino, “Bacterial lipopolysaccharide, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, and other inflammatory markers in obesity and after bariatric surgery,” Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 279–288, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. R. Ahmad, M. F. Sorrell, S. K. Batra, P. Dhawan, and A. B. Singh, “Gut permeability and mucosal inflammation: bad, good or context dependent,” Mucosal Immunology, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 307–317, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. L. Catrysse and G. van Loo, “Inflammation and the metabolic syndrome: the tissue-specific functions of NF-κB,” Trends in Cell Biology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 417–429, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. A. Trompette, E. S. Gollwitzer, K. Yadava et al., “Gut microbiota metabolism of dietary fiber influences allergic airway disease and hematopoiesis,” Nature Medicine, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. P. M. Smith, M. R. Howitt, N. Panikov et al., “The microbial metabolites, short-chain fatty acids, regulate colonic Treg cell homeostasis,” Science, vol. 341, no. 6145, pp. 569–573, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. Steinmeyer, K. Lee, A. Jayaraman, and R. C. Alaniz, “Microbiota metabolite regulation of host immune homeostasis: a mechanistic missing link,” Current Allergy and Asthma Reports, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 24, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. L. Sonnenburg and F. Bäckhed, “Diet-microbiota interactions as moderators of human metabolism,” Nature, vol. 535, no. 7610, pp. 56–64, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. N. Heinritz, E. Weiss, M. Eklund et al., “Intestinal microbiota and microbial metabolites are changed in a pig model fed a high-fat/low-fiber or a low-fat/high-fiber diet,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 4, article e0154329, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. G. Tolhurst, H. Heffron, Y. S. Lam et al., “Short-chain fatty acids stimulate glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion via the G-protein-coupled receptor FFAR2,” Diabetes, vol. 61, no. 2, pp. 364–371, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. A. J. D. Barros, L. P. Santos, F. Wehrmeister et al., “Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts,” BMC Public Health, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 256–259, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. M. G. Dominguez-Bello, E. K. Costello, M. Contreras et al., “Delivery mode shapes the acquisition and structure of the initial microbiota across multiple body habitats in newborns,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 107, no. 26, pp. 11971–11975, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. K. A. Martinez II, J. C. Devlin, C. R. Lacher et al., “Increased weight gain by C-section: functional significance of the primordial microbiome,” Science Advances, vol. 3, no. 10, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. L.-J. Qian, S.-M. Kang, J.-L. Xie et al., “Early-life gut microbial colonization shapes Th1/Th2 balance in asthma model in BALB/c mice,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 135, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. B. Aryal, A. K. Singh, N. Rotllan, N. Price, and C. Fernández-Hernando, “MicroRNAs and lipid metabolism,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 273–280, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. T. Horie, T. Nishino, O. Baba et al., “MicroRNA-33 regulates sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 expression in mice,” Nature Communications, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 2883, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. V. Rottiers and A. M. Näär, “MicroRNAs in metabolism and metabolic disorders,” Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 239–250, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. J. Horton, J. Cohen, and H. Hobbs, “Molecular biology of PCSK9: its role in LDL metabolism,” Trends in Biochemical Sciences, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 71–77, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. S. Sabatine, R. P. Giugliano, S. D. Wiviott et al., “Efficacy and safety of evolocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 372, no. 16, pp. 1500–1509, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. J. J. Tang, J. G. Li, W. Qi et al., “Inhibition of SREBP by a small molecule, betulin, improves hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance and reduces atherosclerotic plaques,” Cell Metabolism, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 44–56, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. S. S. Shin and M. Yoon, “Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) inhibits obesity and improves lipid metabolism in high fat diet-fed castrated mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 210, pp. 80–87, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. Woo, M. Yoon, J. Kim et al., “The anti-angiogenic herbal extract from Melissa officinalis inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and suppresses adipocyte hypertrophy in high fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 178, pp. 238–250, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. F. M. Siraj, S. Natarajan, M. A. Huq, Y. J. Kim, and D. C. Yang, “Structural investigation of ginsenoside Rf with PPARγ major transcriptional factor of adipogenesis and its impact on adipocyte,” Journal of Ginseng Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 141–147, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. J.-W. Yang and S. Kim, “Ginsenoside Rc promotes anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by down-regulating C/EBPα and PPARγ,” Molecules, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1293–1303, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. J. Zhong, X. Rao, J. Deiuliis et al., “A potential role for dendritic cell/macrophage-expressing DPP4 in obesity-induced visceral inflammation,” Diabetes, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 149–157, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. F. Zhuge, Y. Ni, M. Nagashimada et al., “DPP-4 inhibition by linagliptin attenuates obesity-related inflammation and insulin resistance by regulating M1/M2 macrophage polarization,” Diabetes, vol. 65, no. 10, pp. 2966–2979, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. Y. Ni, M. Nagashimada, F. Zhuge et al., “Astaxanthin prevents and reverses diet-induced insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice: a comparison with vitamin E,” Scientific Reports, vol. 5, no. 1, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. Y. Ni, M. Nagashimada, L. Zhan et al., “Prevention and reversal of lipotoxicity-induced hepatic insulin resistance and steatohepatitis in mice by an antioxidant carotenoid, β-cryptoxanthin,” Endocrinology, vol. 156, no. 3, pp. 987–999, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Z. Yu, W. Shao, Y. Chiang et al., “Oltipraz upregulates the nuclear respiratory factor 2 alpha subunit (NRF2) antioxidant system and prevents insulin resistance and obesity induced by a high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice,” Diabetologia, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 922–934, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. S. Shin, J. Wakabayashi, M. S. Yates et al., “Role of Nrf2 in prevention of high-fat diet-induced obesity by synthetic triterpenoid CDDO-imidazolide,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 620, no. 1–3, pp. 138–144, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. D. de Zeeuw, T. Akizawa, P. Audhya et al., “Bardoxolone methyl in type 2 diabetes and stage 4 chronic kidney disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, no. 26, pp. 2492–2503, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. G. Musso, R. Gambino, and M. Cassader, “Gut microbiota as a regulator of energy homeostasis and ectopic fat deposition: mechanisms and implications for metabolic disorders,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 76–83, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. Y. Cho and S. A. Shore, “Obesity, asthma, and the microbiome,” Physiology, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 108–116, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. X. Li, Y. Song, X. Ma et al., “Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum alone or in combination regulate intestinal flora composition and systemic immunity to alleviate obesity syndrome in high-fat diet rat,” International Journal of Food Science & Technology, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 137–146, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. R. Liu, J. Hong, X. Xu et al., “Gut microbiome and serum metabolome alterations in obesity and after weight-loss intervention,” Nature Medicine, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 859–868, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. Y. Li, R. Tang, P. S. C. Leung, M. E. Gershwin, and X. Ma, “Bile acids and intestinal microbiota in autoimmune cholestatic liver diseases,” Autoimmunity Reviews, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 885–896, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. Y. Kusumoto, J. Irie, K. Iwabu et al., “Bile acid binding resin prevents fat accumulation through intestinal microbiota in high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice,” Metabolism, vol. 71, pp. 1–6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. Y. Guo, Y. C. Zhang, W. H. Huang, F. P. Selwyn, and C. D. Klaassen, “Dose-response effect of berberine on bile acid profile and gut microbiota in mice,” BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 394, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. R. Sun, N. Yang, B. Kong et al., “Orally administered berberine modulates hepatic lipid metabolism by altering microbial bile acid metabolism and the intestinal FXR signaling pathway,” Molecular Pharmacology, vol. 91, no. 2, pp. 110–122, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. G. M. Pasinetti, L. M. Ho, J. M. Faith, and K. M. Ono, “Role of gut microbiota-derived polyphenolic acid in attenuation of protein misfolding in neurodegeneration,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 31, no. 1, 2017. View at Google Scholar
  126. M. A. Martinez-Gonzalez, C. Sayon-Orea, M. Ruiz-Canela, C. de la Fuente, A. Gea, and M. Bes-Rastrollo, “Yogurt consumption, weight change and risk of overweight/obesity: the SUN cohort study,” Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 24, no. 11, pp. 1189–1196, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. A. Yeganeh, P. Zahradka, and C. G. Taylor, “Trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10-c12 CLA) treatment and caloric restriction differentially affect adipocyte cell turnover in obese and lean mice,” The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 49, pp. 123–132, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. P. Prabhala, “The Impact of Precise MKP-1 Regulation and Modulation on Cytokine Expression in Asthma and Airway Remodeling,” Tech. Rep., Postgraduate Theses, 2016. View at Google Scholar
  129. M. F. Gregor and G. S. Hotamisligil, “Inflammatory mechanisms in obesity,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 415–445, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. N. Hu and Y. Zhang, “TLR4 knockout attenuated high fat diet-induced cardiac dysfunction via NF-κB/JNK-dependent activation of autophagy,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, vol. 1863, no. 8, pp. 2001–2011, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. J. H. C. Yiu, B. Dorweiler, and C. W. Woo, “Interaction between gut microbiota and toll-like receptor: from immunity to metabolism,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 13–20, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. C. Y. Li, S. R. Erickson, and C. H. Wu, “Metformin use and asthma outcomes among patients with concurrent asthma and diabetes,” Respirology, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1210–1218, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. M. Gauthier, A. Ray, and S. E. Wenzel, “Evolving concepts of asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 192, no. 6, pp. 660–668, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. H. G. Ortega, M. C. Liu, I. D. Pavord et al., “Mepolizumab treatment in patients with severe eosinophilic asthma,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 371, no. 13, pp. 1198–1207, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. M. Castro, J. Zangrilli, M. E. Wechsler et al., “Reslizumab for inadequately controlled asthma with elevated blood eosinophil counts: results from two multicentre, parallel, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials,” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 355–366, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. V. Ramirez-Carrozzi, A. Sambandam, M. Zhou et al., “Combined blockade of the IL-13 and IL-33 pathways leads to a greater inhibition of type 2 inflammation over inhibition of either pathway alone,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 139, no. 2, pp. 705–708.e6, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. J. Corren, R. F. Lemanske Jr, N. A. Hanania et al., “Lebrikizumab treatment in adults with asthma,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 12, pp. 1088–1098, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. N. A. Hanania, M. Noonan, J. Corren et al., “Lebrikizumab in moderate-to-severe asthma: pooled data from two randomised placebo-controlled studies,” Thorax, vol. 70, no. 8, pp. 748–756, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. A. D. Parulekar, C. C. Kao, Z. Diamant, and N. A. Hanania, “Targeting the interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 pathways in severe asthma: current knowledge and future needs,” Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 50–55, 2018. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. T. A. Doherty, “At the bench: understanding group 2 innate lymphoid cells in disease,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 97, no. 3, pp. 455–467, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. D. Rigas, G. Lewis, J. L. Aron et al., “Type 2 innate lymphoid cell suppression by regulatory T cells attenuates airway hyperreactivity and requires inducible T-cell costimulator–inducible T-cell costimulator ligand interaction,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 139, no. 5, pp. 1468–1477.e2, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. H. Y. Kim, H. J. Lee, Y.-J. Chang et al., “Interleukin-17–producing innate lymphoid cells and the NLRP3 inflammasome facilitate obesity-associated airway hyperreactivity,” Nature Medicine, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 54–61, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. S. E. Wenzel, “Asthma phenotypes: the evolution from clinical to molecular approaches,” Nature Medicine, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 716–725, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. M. L. Hernandez, K. Mills, M. Almond et al., “IL-1 receptor antagonist reduces endotoxin-induced airway inflammation in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 135, no. 2, pp. 379–385, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. M. C. Calixto, L. Lintomen, D. M. André et al., “Metformin attenuates the exacerbation of the allergic eosinophilic inflammation in high fat-diet-induced obesity in mice,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 10, article e76786, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. G. M. Gauvreau, P. M. O'Byrne, L.-P. Boulet et al., “Effects of an anti-TSLP antibody on allergen-induced asthmatic responses,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 370, no. 22, pp. 2102–2110, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. J. Liu, R. Sakurai, and V. K. Rehan, “PPAR-γ agonist rosiglitazone reverses perinatal nicotine exposure-induced asthma in rat offspring,” American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 308, no. 8, pp. L788–L796, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. Y.-S. Yoon, S.-Y. Kim, M.-J. Kim, J.-H. Lim, M.-S. Cho, and J. L. Kang, “PPARγ activation following apoptotic cell instillation promotes resolution of lung inflammation and fibrosis via regulation of efferocytosis and proresolving cytokines,” Mucosal Immunology, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1031–1046, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. J. Dib, A. Thomas, P. Delahaut, E. Fichant, W. Schänzer, and M. Thevis, “Identification and characterization of in vitro and in vivo generated metabolites of the adiponectin receptor agonists AdipoRon and 112254,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 125, pp. 68–76, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. A. Engin, “Adiponectin-resistance in obesity,” Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, vol. 960, pp. 415–441, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus