Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 2349045, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2349045
Review Article

Dysregulated Functions of Lung Macrophage Populations in COPD

1Genomics & Immunoregulation, Life and Medical Sciences Institute (LIMES), Carl-Troll-Str. 31, 53115 Bonn, Germany
2Platform for Single Cell Genomics and Epigenomics, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases and University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 27, 53175 Bonn, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Theodore S. Kapellos; ed.nnob-inu@ollepakt and Joachim L. Schultze; ed.nnob-inu@eztluhcs.j

Received 30 July 2017; Accepted 29 November 2017; Published 18 February 2018

Academic Editor: Ethan M. Shevach

Copyright © 2018 Theodore S. Kapellos et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Kopf, C. Schneider, and S. P. Nobs, “The development and function of lung-resident macrophages and dendritic cells,” Nature Immunology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 36–44, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. B. E. Lehnert, “Pulmonary and thoracic macrophage subpopulations and clearance of particles from the lung,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 97, pp. 17–46, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. E. Crowell, E. Heaphy, Y. E. Valdez, C. Mold, and B. E. Lehnert, “Alveolar nd interstitial macrophage populations in the murine lung,” Experimental Lung Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 435–446, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Y. S. Tan and M. A. Krasnow, “Developmental origin of lung macrophage diversity,” Development, vol. 143, no. 8, pp. 1318–1327, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. Hoppstädter, B. Diesel, R. Zarbock et al., “Differential cell reaction upon Toll-like receptor 4 and 9 activation in human alveolar and lung interstitial macrophages,” Respiratory Research, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 124, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. V. Misharin, L. Morales-Nebreda, G. M. Mutlu, G. R. S. Budinger, and H. Perlman, “Flow cytometric analysis of macrophages and dendritic cell subsets in the mouse lung,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 503–510, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. R. Zaynagetdinov, T. P. Sherrill, P. L. Kendall et al., “Identification of myeloid cell subsets in murine lungs using flow cytometry,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 180–189, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Feng and H. Mao, “Expression and preliminary functional analysis of Siglec-F on mouse macrophages,” Journal of Zhejiang University SCIENCE B, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 386–394, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. Johansson, M. Lundborg, C. M. Sköld et al., “Functional, morphological, and phenotypical differences between rat alveolar and interstitial macrophages,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 582–588, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. M. Duan, W. C. Li, R. Vlahos, M. J. Maxwell, G. P. Anderson, and M. L. Hibbs, “Distinct macrophage subpopulations characterize acute infection and chronic inflammatory lung disease,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 189, no. 2, pp. 946–955, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y.-R. A. Yu, D. F. Hotten, Y. Malakhau et al., “Flow cytometric analysis of myeloid cells in human blood, bronchoalveolar lavage, and lung tissues,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 13–24, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Bharat, S. M. Bhorade, L. Morales-Nebreda et al., “Flow cytometry reveals similarities between lung macrophages in humans and mice,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 147–149, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. N. Desch, S. L. Gibbings, R. Goyal et al., “Flow cytometric analysis of mononuclear phagocytes in nondiseased human lung and lung-draining lymph nodes,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 193, no. 6, pp. 614–626, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. C. Kirby, M. C. Coles, and P. M. Kaye, “Alveolar macrophages transport pathogens to lung draining lymph nodes,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 3, pp. 1983–1989, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. G. B. Toews, W. C. Vial, M. M. Dunn et al., “The accessory cell function of human alveolar macrophages in specific T cell proliferation,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 132, no. 1, pp. 181–186, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  16. C. R. Lyons, E. J. Ball, G. B. Toews, J. C. Weissler, P. Stastny, and M. F. Lipscomb, “Inability of human alveolar macrophages to stimulate resting T cells correlates with decreased antigen-specific T cell-macrophage binding,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 1173–1180, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  17. G. Franke-Ullmann, C. Pförtner, P. Walter, C. Steinmüller, M. L. Lohmann-Matthes, and L. Kobzik, “Characterization of murine lung interstitial macrophages in comparison with alveolar macrophages in vitro,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 157, no. 7, pp. 3097–3104, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  18. D. Bedoret, H. Wallemacq, T. Marichal et al., “Lung interstitial macrophages alter dendritic cell functions to prevent airway allergy in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 12, pp. 3723–3738, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. M. Green, “The J. Burns Amberson lecture—in defense of the lung,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 102, no. 5, pp. 691–703, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. R. L. Blumenthal, D. E. Campbell, P. Hwang, R. H. DeKruyff, L. R. Frankel, and D. T. Umetsu, “Human alveolar macrophages induce functional inactivation in antigen-specific CD4 T cells,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 258–264, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Thepen, N. Van Rooijen, and G. Kraal, “Alveolar macrophage elimination in vivo is associated with an increase in pulmonary immune response in mice,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 170, no. 2, pp. 499–509, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. U. Maus, M. A. Koay, T. Delbeck et al., “Role of resident alveolar macrophages in leukocyte traffic into the alveolar air space of intact mice,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 282, no. 6, pp. L1245–L1252, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. S. Hashimoto, J. F. Pittet, K. Hong et al., “Depletion of alveolar macrophages decreases neutrophil chemotaxis to pseudomonas airspace infections,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 270, 5, Part 1, pp. L819–L828, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Beck-Schimmer, R. Schwendener, T. Pasch, L. Reyes, C. Booy, and R. C. Schimmer, “Alveolar macrophages regulate neutrophil recruitment in endotoxin-induced lung injury,” Respiratory Research, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 61, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. R. Hoidal, D. Schmeling, and P. K. Peterson, “Phagocytosis, bacterial killing, and metabolism by purified human lung phagocytes,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 144, no. 1, pp. 61–71, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. L. Gautier, T. Shay, J. Miller et al., “Gene-expression profiles and transcriptional regulatory pathways that underlie the identity and diversity of mouse tissue macrophages,” Nature Immunology, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1118–1128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Lagranderie, M. A. Nahori, A. M. Balazuc et al., “Dendritic cells recruited to the lung shortly after intranasal delivery of Mycobacterium bovis BCG drive the primary immune response towards a type 1 cytokine production,” Immunology, vol. 108, no. 3, pp. 352–364, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. Fathi, A. Johansson, M. Lundborg, L. Orre, C. M. Sköld, and P. Camner, “Functional and morphological differences between human alveolar and interstitial macrophages,” Experimental and Molecular Pathology, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 77–82, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. S. Prokhorova, N. Lavnikova, and D. L. Laskin, “Functional characterization of interstitial macrophages and subpopulations of alveolar macrophages from rat lung,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  30. H.-W. Liu, A. Anand, K. Bloch, D. Christiani, and R. Kradin, “Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by macrophages in rat lung,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 223–228, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. M. A. Spiteri, S. W. Clarke, and L. W. Poulter, “Isolation of phenotypically and functionally distinct macrophage subpopulations from human bronchoalveolar lavage,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 717–726, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  32. D. B. Chandler, W. C. Fuller, R. M. Jackson, and J. D. Fulmer, “Fractionation of rat alveolar macrophages by isopycnic centrifugation: morphological, cytochemical, biochemical, and functional properties,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 371–383, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  33. T. S. Haugen, B. Nakstad, and T. Lyberg, “Heterogeneity of procoagulant activity and cytokine release in subpopulations of alveolar macrophages and monocytes,” Inflammation, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. B. S. Zwilling, L. B. Campolito, and N. A. Reiches, “Alveolar macrophage subpopulations identified by differential centrifugation on a discontinuous albumin density gradient,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 125, no. 4, pp. 448–452, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Holian, J. H. Dauber, M. S. Diamond, and R. P. Daniele, “Separation of bronchoalveolar cells from the guinea pig on continuous gradients of Percoll: functional properties of fractionated lung macrophages,” Journal of the Reticuloendothelial Society, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 157–164, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  36. W. J. Calhoun and S. M. Salisbury, “Heterogeneity in cell recovery and superoxide production in buoyant, density-defined subpopulations of human alveolar macrophages from healthy volunteers and sarcoidosis patients,” The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 114, no. 6, pp. 682–690, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  37. J. Shellito and H. B. Kaltreider, “Heterogeneity of immunologic function among subfractions of normal rat alveolar macrophages: II. Activation as a determinant of functional activity,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 678–683, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  38. J. Shellito and H. B. Kaltreider, “Heterogeneity of immunologic function among subfractions of normal rat alveolar macrophages,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 747–753, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. M. A. Murphy and H. B. Herscowitz, “Heterogeneity among alveolar macrophages in humoral and cell-mediated immune responses: separation of functional subpopulations by density gradient centrifugation on Percoll,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 39–54, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  40. V. A. Gant and A. S. Hamblin, “Human bronchoalveolar macrophage heterogeneity demonstrated by histochemistry, surface markers and phagocytosis,” Clinical & experimental immunology, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 539–545, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  41. R. G. Sitrin, P. G. Brubaker, J. E. Shellito, and H. B. Kaltreider, “The distribution of procoagulant and plasminogen activator activities among density fractions of normal rabbit alveolar macrophages,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 133, no. 3, pp. 468–472, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. K. Sakai, H. Moriya, A. Ueyama, and Y. Kishino, “Morphological heterogeneity among fractionated alveolar macrophages in their release of lysosomal enzymes,” Cellular and Molecular Biology, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 85–94, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  43. D. K. Nayak, F. Zhou, M. Xu et al., “Long-term persistence of donor alveolar macrophages in human lung transplant recipients that influences donor-specific immune responses,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 2300–2311, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. I. Eguíluz-Gracia, H. H. L. Schultz, L. I. B. Sikkeland et al., “Long-term persistence of human donor alveolar macrophages in lung transplant recipients,” Thorax, vol. 71, no. 11, pp. 1006–1011, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Hashimoto, A. Chow, C. Noizat et al., “Tissue-resident macrophages self-maintain locally throughout adult life with minimal contribution from circulating monocytes,” Immunity, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 792–804, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. U. A. Maus, S. Janzen, G. Wall et al., “Resident alveolar macrophages are replaced by recruited monocytes in response to endotoxin-induced lung inflammation,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 227–235, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. D. Tarling, H. S. Lin, and S. Hsu, “Self-renewal of pulmonary alveolar macrophages: evidence from radiation chimera studies,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 443–446, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  48. E. Thomas, R. Ramberg, G. Sale, R. Sparkes, and D. Golde, “Direct evidence for a bone marrow origin of the alveolar macrophage in man,” Science, vol. 192, no. 4243, pp. 1016–1018, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. C. Steinmüller, G. Franke-Ullmann, M. L. Lohmann-Matthes, and A. Emmendörffer, “Local activation of nonspecific defense against a respiratory model infection by application of interferon- γ: comparison between rat alveolar and interstitial lung macrophages,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 481–490, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. N. Lavnikova, S. Prokhorova, L. Helyar, and D. L. Laskin, “Isolation and partial characterization of subpopulations of alveolar macrophages, granulocytes, and highly enriched interstitial macrophages from rat lung,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 384–392, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. D. B. Chandler and A. L. Brannen, “Interstitial macrophage subpopulations: responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli,” Tissue and Cell, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 427–434, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. B. Chandler, G. Bayles, and W. C. Fuller, “Prostaglandin synthesis and release by subpopulations of rat interstitial macrophages,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 138, no. 4, pp. 901–907, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. D. B. Chandler, J. I. Kennedy, and J. D. Fulmer, “Studies of membrane receptors, phagocytosis, and morphology of subpopulations of rat lung interstitial macrophages,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 134, no. 3, pp. 542–547, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. P. G. Holt, L. A. Warner, and J. M. Papadimitriou, “Alveolar macrophages: functional heterogeneity within macrophage populations from rat lung,” Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, vol. 60, no. 6, pp. 607–618, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  55. N. Bilyk, J. S. Mackenzie, J. M. Papadimitriou, and P. G. Holt, “Functional studies on macrophage populations in the airways and the lung wall of SPF mice in the steady-state and during respiratory virus infection,” Immunology, vol. 65, no. 3, pp. 417–425, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  56. R. J. Sebring and B. E. Lehnert, “Morphometric comparisons of rat alveolar macrophages, pulmonary interstitial macrophages, and blood monocytes,” Experimental Lung Research, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 479–496, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. S. Warren, R. G. Kunkel, K. J. Johnson, and P. A. Ward, “Comparative O2-. responses of lung macrophages and blood phagocytic cells in the rat. Possible relevance to IgA immune complex induced lung injury,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 311–320, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  58. L. Ziegler-Heitbrock, P. Ancuta, S. Crowe et al., “Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood,” Blood, vol. 116, no. 16, pp. e74–e80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. Yona, K. W. Kim, Y. Wolf et al., “Fate mapping reveals origins and dynamics of monocytes and tissue macrophages under homeostasis,” Immunity, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 79–91, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. F. Geissmann, S. Jung, and D. R. Littman, “Blood monocytes consist of two principal subsets with distinct migratory properties,” Immunity, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 71–82, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. L. M. Carlin, E. G. Stamatiades, C. Auffray et al., “Nr4a1-dependent Ly6Clow monocytes monitor endothelial cells and orchestrate their disposal,” Cell, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 362–375, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Auffray, D. Fogg, M. Garfa et al., “Monitoring of blood vessels and tissues by a population of monocytes with patrolling behavior,” Science, vol. 317, no. 5838, pp. 666–670, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. E. Segura, M. Touzot, A. Bohineust et al., “Human inflammatory dendritic cells induce Th17 cell differentiation,” Immunity, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 336–348, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Guilliams, F. Ginhoux, C. Jakubzick et al., “Dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages: a unified nomenclature based on ontogeny,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 571–8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. V. Jakubzick, G. J. Randolph, and P. M. Henson, “Monocyte differentiation and antigen-presenting functions,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 349–362, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. M. A. Ingersoll, R. Spanbroek, C. Lottaz et al., “Comparison of gene expression profiles between human and mouse monocyte subsets,” Blood, vol. 115, no. 3, pp. e10–e19, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. Hettinger, D. M. Richards, J. Hansson et al., “Origin of monocytes and macrophages in a committed progenitor,” Nature Immunology, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 821–830, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. A. M. Zawada, K. S. Rogacev, B. Rotter et al., “SuperSAGE evidence for CD14++CD16+ monocytes as a third monocyte subset,” Blood, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. e50–e61, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. K.-U. Belge, F. Dayyani, A. Horelt et al., “The proinflammatory CD14+CD16+DR++ monocytes are a major source of TNF,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 168, no. 7, pp. 3536–3542, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. A.-C. Villani, R. Satija, G. Reynolds et al., “Single-cell RNA-seq reveals new types of human blood dendritic cells, monocytes, and progenitors,” Science, vol. 356, no. 6335, article eaah4573, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. C. Hogg, “Pathophysiology of airflow limitation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9435, pp. 709–721, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. A. S. Gershon, L. Warner, P. Cascagnette, J. C. Victor, and T. To, “Lifetime risk of developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal population study,” Lancet, vol. 378, no. 9795, pp. 991–996, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, “GOLD 2017 global strategy for the diagnosis, management and prevention of COPD,” 2017, http://goldcopd.org/gold-2017-global-strategy-diagnosis-management-prevention-copd/.
  74. C. Kim, K. H. Yoo, C. K. Rhee et al., “Health care use and economic burden of patients with diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea,” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 737–743, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. W.-S. Kelvin Teo, W.-S. Tan, W.-F. Chong et al., “Economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Respirology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 120–126, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. P. Lou, Y. Zhu, P. Chen et al., “Vulnerability, beliefs, treatments and economic burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in rural areas in China: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 287, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. C. D. Mathers and D. Loncar, “Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 3, no. 11, article e442, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. C. J. L. Murray and A. D. Lopez, “Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause 1990–2020: Global Burden of Disease Study,” Lancet, vol. 349, no. 9064, pp. 1498–1504, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. J. L. Lopez-Campos, W. Tan, and J. B. Soriano, “Global burden of COPD,” Respirology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 14–23, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. M. Mannino and A. S. Buist, “Global burden of COPD: risk factors, prevalence, and future trends,” Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9589, pp. 765–773, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. D. Petrescu, F. Biciusca, V. Voican, C. Petrescu, I. C. Ciobanu, and D. Tudorascu, “The clinical implications of the Alpha 1- antitrypsin deficiency,” Current Health Sciences Journal, vol. 39, no. 3, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  82. N. Mercado, K. Ito, and P. J. Barnes, “Accelerated ageing of the lung in COPD: new concepts,” Thorax, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 482–489, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. V. Amsellem, G. Gary-Bobo, E. Marcos et al., “Telomere dysfunction causes sustained inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 184, no. 12, pp. 1358–1366, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. C. M. Freeman, F. J. Martinez, M. L. K. Han et al., “Lung CD8+ T cells in COPD have increased expression of bacterial TLRs,” Respiratory Research, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 13, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. J. Nadigel, D. Préfontaine, C. J. Baglole et al., “Cigarette smoke increases TLR4 and TLR9 expression and induces cytokine production from CD8+ T cells in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Respiratory Research, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 149, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. W. Gao, L. Li, Y. Wang et al., “Bronchial epithelial cells: the key effector cells in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease?” Respirology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 722–729, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. E. Doz, N. Noulin, E. Boichot et al., “Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammation is TLR4/MyD88 and IL-1R1/MyD88 signaling dependent,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 180, no. 2, pp. 1169–1178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  88. T. Mio, D. J. Romberger, A. B. Thompson, R. A. Robbins, A. Heires, and S. I. Rennard, “Cigarette smoke induces interleukin-8 release from human bronchial epithelial cells,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 155, no. 5, pp. 1770–1776, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  89. A. Pesci, B. Balbi, M. Majori et al., “Inflammatory cells and mediators in bronchial lavage of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 380–386, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. V. M. Keatings, P. D. Collins, D. M. Scott, and P. J. Barnes, “Differences in interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in induced sputum from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 153, no. 2, pp. 530–534, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  91. J.-L. Corhay, M. Henket, D. Nguyen, B. Duysinx, J. Sele, and R. Louis, “Leukotriene B4 contributes to exhaled breath condensate and sputum neutrophil chemotaxis in COPD,” Chest, vol. 136, no. 4, pp. 1047–1054, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. S. L. Traves, S. V. Culpitt, R. E. Russell, P. J. Barnes, and L. E. Donnelly, “Increased levels of the chemokines GROα and MCP-1 in sputum samples from patients with COPD,” Thorax, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 590–595, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. D. Morrison, I. Rahman, S. Lannan, and W. MacNee, “Epithelial permeability, inflammation, and oxidant stress in the air spaces of smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 473–479, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  94. A. K. Ravi, S. Khurana, J. Lemon et al., “Increased levels of soluble interleukin-6 receptor and CCL3 in COPD sputum,” Respiratory Research, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 103, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. Di Stefano, P. Maestrelli, A. Roggeri et al., “Upregulation of adhesion molecules in the bronchial mucosa of subjects with chronic obstructive bronchitis,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 803–810, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  96. H. Takizawa, M. Tanaka, K. Takami et al., “Increased expression of transforming growth factor- β 1 in small airway epithelium from tobacco smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 1476–1483, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  97. D. Stănescu, A. Sanna, C. Veriter et al., “Airways obstruction, chronic expectoration, and rapid decline of FEV1 in smokers are associated with increased levels of sputum neutrophils,” Thorax, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 267–271, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. A. F. Ofulue and M. Ko, “Effects of depletion of neutrophils or macrophages on development of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 277, 1, Part 1, pp. L97–L105, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  99. A. Churg, K. Zay, S. Shay et al., “Acute cigarette smoke-induced connective tissue breakdown requires both neutrophils and macrophage metalloelastase in mice,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 368–374, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  100. E. E. Schriver, J. M. Davidson, M. C. Sutcliffe, B. B. Swindell, and G. R. Bernard, “Comparison of elastin peptide concentrations in body fluids from healthy volunteers, smokers, and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 145, 4, Part 1, pp. 762–766, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. J. V. Fahy and B. F. Dickey, “Airway mucus function and dysfunction,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 23, pp. 2233–2247, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. C. Hubbard, G. Fells, J. Gadek, S. Pacholok, J. Humes, and R. G. Crystal, “Neutrophil accumulation in the lung in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. Spontaneous release of leukotriene B4 by alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 88, no. 3, pp. 891–897, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  103. I. K. Demedts, K. R. Bracke, G. van Pottelberge et al., “Accumulation of dendritic cells and increased CCL20 levels in the airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 10, pp. 998–1005, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. F. M. Botelho, J. K. Nikota, C. M. T. Bauer et al., “Cigarette smoke-induced accumulation of lung dendritic cells is interleukin-1α-dependent in mice,” Respiratory Research, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. G. R. Van Pottelberge, K. R. Bracke, I. K. Demedts et al., “Selective accumulation of langerhans-type dendritic cells in small airways of patients with COPD,” Respiratory Research, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 35, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. A. V. Rogers, E. Adelroth, K. Hattotuwa, A. Dewar, and P. K. Jeffery, “Bronchial mucosal dendritic cells in smokers and ex-smokers with COPD: an electron microscopic study,” Thorax, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 108–114, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. X. Liao, T. Ding, X.-M. Rao et al., “Cigarette smoke affects dendritic cell maturation in the small airways of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Molecular Medicine Reports, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 219–225, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. M. E. Givi, P. Akbari, L. Boon et al., “Dendritic cells inversely regulate airway inflammation in cigarette smoke-exposed mice,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 310, no. 1, pp. L95–L102, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. E. Arellano-Orden, C. Calero-Acuña, N. Moreno-Mata et al., “Cigarette smoke decreases the maturation of lung myeloid dendritic cells,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 4, article e0152737, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A. Zanini, A. Spanevello, S. Baraldo et al., “Decreased maturation of dendritic cells in the central airways of COPD patients is associated with VEGF, TGF-β and vascularity,” Respiration, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 234–242, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. P. Stoll, M. Ulrich, K. Bratke, K. Garbe, J. C. Virchow, and M. Lommatzsch, “Imbalance of dendritic cell co-stimulation in COPD,” Respiratory Research, vol. 16, no. 1, p. 19, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Tsoumakidou, S. Tousa, M. Semitekolou et al., “Tolerogenic signaling by pulmonary CD1c+ dendritic cells induces regulatory T cells in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by IL-27/IL-10/inducible costimulator ligand,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 944–954.e8, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. S. Grumelli, D. B. Corry, L. Z. Song et al., “An immune basis for lung parenchymal destruction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, article e8, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. C. Pridgeon, L. Bugeon, L. Donnelly et al., “Regulation of IL-17 in chronic inflammation in the human lung,” Clinical Science, vol. 120, no. 12, pp. 515–524, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. M. Ponce-Gallegos, A. Ramírez-Venegas, and R. Falfán-Valencia, “Th17 profile in COPD exacerbations,” International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, vol. 12, pp. 1857–1865, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  116. M. Saetta, M. Mariani, P. Panina-Bordignon et al., “Increased expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10 in peripheral airways of smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 165, no. 10, pp. 1404–1409, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. R. A. Urbanowicz, J. R. Lamb, I. Todd, J. M. Corne, and L. C. Fairclough, “Enhanced effector function of cytotoxic cells in the induced sputum of COPD patients,” Respiratory Research, vol. 11, no. 1, p. 76, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. J. H. J. Vernooy, G. M. Möller, R. J. van Suylen et al., “Increased granzyme A expression in type II pneumocytes of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 5, pp. 464–472, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. G. Chrysofakis, N. Tzanakis, D. Kyriakoy et al., “Perforin expression and cytotoxic activity of sputum CD8+ lymphocytes in patients with COPD,” Chest, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 71–76, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. J. Majo, H. Ghezzo, and M. G. Cosio, “Lymphocyte population and apoptosis in the lungs of smokers and their relation to emphysema,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 946–953, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. F. R. D’Alessio, K. Tsushima, N. R. Aggarwal et al., “CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs resolve experimental lung injury in mice and are present in humans with acute lung injury,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 119, no. 10, pp. 2898–2913, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. B. Barceló, J. Pons, J. M. Ferrer, J. Sauleda, A. Fuster, and A. G. N. Agustí, “Phenotypic characterisation of T-lymphocytes in COPD: abnormal CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-lymphocyte response to tobacco smoking,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 555–562, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A. Di Stefano, G. Caramori, A. Barczyk et al., “Innate immunity but not NLRP3 inflammasome activation correlates with severity of stable COPD,” Thorax, vol. 69, no. 6, pp. 516–524, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. B. W. A. van der Strate, D. S. Postma, C. A. Brandsma et al., “Cigarette smoke-induced emphysema: A role for the B cell?” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 173, no. 7, pp. 751–758, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. F. Polverino, S. Baraldo, E. Bazzan et al., “A novel insight into adaptive immunity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: B cell activating factor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor family,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 182, no. 8, pp. 1011–1019, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. C. S. Berenson, R. L. Kruzel, E. Eberhardt et al., “Impaired innate immune alveolar macrophage response and the predilection for COPD exacerbations,” Thorax, vol. 69, no. 9, pp. 811–818, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. G. G. Brusselle, T. Demoor, K. R. Bracke, C.-A. Brandsma, and W. Timens, “Lymphoid follicles in (very) severe COPD: beneficial or harmful?” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 219–230, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. T. A. R. Seemungal, G. C. Donaldson, E. A. Paul, J. C. Bestall, D. J. Jeffries, and J. A. Wedzicha, “Effect of exacerbation on quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 157, no. 5, pp. 1418–1422, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  129. D. S. Garcha, S. J. Thurston, A. R. C. Patel et al., “Changes in prevalence and load of airway bacteria using quantitative PCR in stable and exacerbated COPD,” Thorax, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1075–1080, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. S. Sethi, N. Evans, B. J. B. Grant, and T. F. Murphy, “New strains of bacteria and exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 347, no. 7, pp. 465–471, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. R. Pela, F. Marchesani, C. Agostinelli et al., “Airways microbial flora in COPD patients in stable clinical conditions and during exacerbations: a bronchoscopic investigation,” Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 262–267, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  132. N. Soler, A. Torres, S. Ewig et al., “Bronchial microbial patterns in severe exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) requiring mechanical ventilation,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 157, no. 5, pp. 1498–1505, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  133. M. Singh, S. H. Lee, P. Porter et al., “Human rhinovirus proteinase 2A induces TH1 and TH2 immunity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 125, no. 6, pp. 1369–1378.e2, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. D. Beckham, A. Cadena, J. Lin et al., “Respiratory viral infections in patients with chronic, obstructive pulmonary disease,” Journal of Infection, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 322–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. S. Sethi, P. Mallia, and S. L. Johnston, “New paradigms in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease II,” Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 532–534, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. M.-J. Kang, C. G. Lee, J. Y. Lee et al., “Cigarette smoke selectively enhances viral PAMP– and virus-induced pulmonary innate immune and remodeling responses in mice,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 118, no. 8, pp. 2771–2784, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. C. Selby, E. Drost, S. Lannan, P. K. Wraith, and W. Macnee, “Neutrophil retention in the lungs of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 143, no. 6, pp. 1359–1364, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  138. S. Sethi, C. Wrona, B. J. B. Grant, and T. F. Murphy, “Strain-specific immune response to Haemophilus influenzae in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 448–453, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  139. S. Sethi, J. Maloney, L. Grove, C. Wrona, and C. S. Berenson, “Airway inflammation and bronchial bacterial colonization in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 173, no. 9, pp. 991–998, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. K. Fujimoto, M. Yasuo, K. Urushibata, M. Hanaoka, T. Koizumi, and K. Kubo, “Airway inflammation during stable and acutely exacerbated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 640–646, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. B. Meshi, T. Z. Vitalis, D. Ionescu et al., “Emphysematous lung destruction by cigarette smoke. The effects of latent adenoviral infection on the lung inflammatory response,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 52–57, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. A. di Stefano, A. Capelli, M. Lusuardi et al., “Severity of airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 1277–1285, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. A. Heguy, T. P. O’Connor, K. Luettich et al., “Gene expression profiling of human alveolar macrophages of phenotypically normal smokers and nonsmokers reveals a previously unrecognized subset of genes modulated by cigarette smoking,” Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 318–328, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. J. Xue, S. V. Schmidt, J. Sander et al., “Transcriptome-based network analysis reveals a spectrum model of human macrophage activation,” Immunity, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 274–288, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. H. Chen, M. J. Cowan, J. D. Hasday, S. N. Vogel, and A. E. Medvedev, “Tobacco smoking inhibits expression of proinflammatory cytokines and activation of IL-1R-associated kinase, p38, and NF-κB in alveolar macrophages stimulated with TLR2 and TLR4 agonists,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 9, pp. 6097–6106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  146. R. Aldonyte, L. Jansson, E. Piitulainen, and S. Janciauskiene, “Circulating monocytes from healthy individuals and COPD patients,” Respiratory Research, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 11, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. S. Bozinovski, R. Vlahos, Y. Zhang et al., “Carbonylation caused by cigarette smoke extract is associated with defective macrophage immunity,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 229–236, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. H. J. Metcalfe, S. Lea, D. Hughes, R. Khalaf, K. Abbott-Banner, and D. Singh, “Effects of cigarette smoke on Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) macrophages,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 176, no. 3, pp. 461–472, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. M. Frankenberger, C. Eder, T. P. Hofer et al., “Chemokine expression by small sputum macrophages in COPD,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 17, no. 7-8, pp. 1–770, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. S. Hodge, G. Matthews, V. Mukaro et al., “Cigarette smoke-induced changes to alveolar macrophage phenotype and function are improved by treatment with procysteine,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 673–681, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. I. Doyle, M. Ratcliffe, A. Walding et al., “Differential gene expression analysis in human monocyte-derived macrophages: impact of cigarette smoke on host defence,” Molecular Immunology, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 1058–1065, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. G. J. Gaschler, C. C. J. Zavitz, C. M. T. Bauer et al., “Cigarette smoke exposure attenuates cytokine production by mouse alveolar macrophages,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 218–226, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. W. I. de Boer, J. K. Sont, A. van Schadewijk, J. Stolk, J. H. van Krieken, and P. S. Hiemstra, “Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, interleukin 8, and chronic airways inflammation in COPD,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 190, no. 5, pp. 619–626, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  154. R. Shaykhiev, A. Krause, J. Salit et al., “Smoking-dependent reprogramming of alveolar macrophage polarization: implication for pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 183, no. 4, pp. 2867–2883, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. M. A. Birrell, S. Wong, M. C. Catley, and M. G. Belvisi, “Impact of tobacco-smoke on key signaling pathways in the innate immune response in lung macrophages,” Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol. 214, no. 1, pp. 27–37, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. R. Taha, R. Olivenstein, T. Utsumi et al., “Prostaglandin H synthase 2 expression in airway cells from patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 161, no. 2, pp. 636–640, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  157. K. Karimi, H. Sarir, E. Mortaz et al., “Toll-like receptor-4 mediates cigarette smoke-induced cytokine production by human macrophages,” Respiratory Research, vol. 7, no. 1, p. 66, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. J. C. Todt, C. M. Freeman, J. P. Brown et al., “Smoking decreases the response of human lung macrophages to double-stranded RNA by reducing TLR3 expression,” Respiratory Research, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. J.-H. Yu, L. Long, Z.-X. Luo, L.-M. Li, and J.-R. You, “Anti-inflammatory role of microRNA let-7c in LPS treated alveolar macrophages by targeting STAT3,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 72–75, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. C. Tan, L. Xuan, S. Cao, G. Yu, Q. Hou, and H. Wang, “Decreased histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs) of COPD patients,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 1, article e0147380, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. K. Ito, M. Ito, W. M. Elliott et al., “Decreased histone deacetylase activity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 19, pp. 1967–1976, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. S.-R. Yang, A. S. Chida, M. R. Bauter et al., “Cigarette smoke induces proinflammatory cytokine release by activation of NF-κB and posttranslational modifications of histone deacetylase in macrophages,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. L46–L57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. D. F. Church and W. A. Pryor, “Free-radical chemistry of cigarette smoke and its toxicological implications,” Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 64, pp. 111–126, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  164. W. A. Pryor and K. Stone, “Oxidants in cigarette smoke radicals, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrate, and peroxynitrite,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 686, pp. 12–27, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. H. Sarir, E. Mortaz, K. Karimi et al., “Cigarette smoke regulates the expression of TLR4 and IL-8 production by human macrophages,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 12, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. T. Müller and S. Gebel, “The cellular stress response induced by aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke is critically dependent on the intracellular glutathione concentration,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 19, no. 5, pp. 797–801, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. P. Maestrelli, C. Páska, M. Saetta et al., “Decreased haem oxygenase-1 and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase in the lung of severe COPD patients,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 971–6, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  168. K. Ito, S. Lim, G. Caramori, K. F. Chung, P. J. Barnes, and I. M. Adcock, “Cigarette smoking reduces histone deacetylase 2 expression, enhances cytokine expression, and inhibits glucocorticoid actions in alveolar macrophages,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1110–1112, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  169. C. Trocme, C. Deffert, J. Cachat et al., “Macrophage-specific NOX2 contributes to the development of lung emphysema through modulation of SIRT1/MMP-9 pathways,” The Journal of Pathology, vol. 235, no. 1, pp. 65–78, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. K. Aoshiba, J. Tamaoki, and A. Nagai, “Acute cigarette smoke exposure induces apoptosis of alveolar macrophages,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 281, no. 6, pp. L1392–L1401, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  171. S. M. Cloonan, S. Mumby, I. M. Adcock, A. M. K. Choi, K. F. Chung, and G. J. Quinlan, “The “iron”-y of iron overload and iron deficiency in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 196, no. 9, pp. 1103–1112, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  172. S. Mohan, T. Ho, M. Kjarsgaard et al., “Hemosiderin in sputum macrophages may predict infective exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a retrospective observational study,” BMC Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, p. 60, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. Q. Philippot, G. Deslée, T. L. Adair-Kirk et al., “Increased iron sequestration in alveolar macrophages in chronic obtructive pulmonary disease,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 5, article e96285, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. L. J. Wesselius, M. E. Nelson, and B. S. Skikne, “Increased release of ferritin and iron by iron-loaded alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 150, no. 3, pp. 690–695, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  175. M. W. Plautz, K. Bailey, and L. J. Wesselius, “Influence of cigarette smoking on crocidolite-induced ferritin release by human alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 449–456, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. R. K. Thimmulappa, X. Gang, J.-H. Kim, T. E. Sussan, J. L. Witztum, and S. Biswal, “Oxidized phospholipids impair pulmonary antibacterial defenses: evidence in mice exposed to cigarette smoke,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 426, no. 2, pp. 253–259, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. E. L. Beckett, R. L. Stevens, A. G. Jarnicki et al., “A new short-term mouse model of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease identifies a role for mast cell tryptase in pathogenesis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 752–762.e7, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. H. Li, T. Yang, Q. Ning et al., “Cigarette smoke extract–treated mast cells promote alveolar macrophage infiltration and polarization in experimental chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Inhalation Toxicology, vol. 27, no. 14, pp. 822–831, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. R. Foronjy, T. Nkyimbeng, A. Wallace et al., “Transgenic expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 causes adult-onset emphysema in mice associated with the loss of alveolar elastin,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 294, no. 6, pp. L1149–L1157, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. A. Punturieri, S. Filippov, E. Allen et al., “Regulation of elastinolytic cysteine proteinase activity in normal and cathepsin K–deficient human macrophages,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 192, no. 6, pp. 789–800, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. R. E. K. Russell, A. Thorley, S. V. Culpitt et al., “Alveolar macrophage-mediated elastolysis: roles of matrix metalloproteinases, cysteine, and serine proteases,” American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, vol. 283, no. 4, pp. L867–L873, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  182. R. D. Hautamaki, D. K. Kobayashi, R. M. Senior, and S. D. Shapiro, “Requirement for macrophage elastase for cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice,” Science, vol. 277, no. 5334, pp. 2002–2004, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. A. M. Houghton, P. A. Quintero, D. L. Perkins et al., “Elastin fragments drive disease progression in a murine model of emphysema,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 753–759, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. S. D. Shapiro, “The macrophage in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 160, Supplement 1, pp. S29–S32, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  185. J. Gadek, G. Fells, and R. Crystal, “Cigarette smoking induces functional antiprotease deficiency in the lower respiratory tract of humans,” Science, vol. 206, no. 4424, pp. 1315-1316, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  186. V. Y. Reddy, Q. Y. Zhang, and S. J. Weiss, “Pericellular mobilization of the tissue-destructive cysteine proteinases, cathepsins B, L, and S, by human monocyte-derived macrophages,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 92, no. 9, pp. 3849–3853, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  187. G. P. Shi, J. S. Munger, J. P. Meara, D. H. Rich, and H. A. Chapman, “Molecular cloning and expression of human alveolar macrophage cathepsin S, an elastinolytic cysteine protease,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 267, no. 11, pp. 7258–7262, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  188. A. M. Wallace, A. J. Sandford, J. C. English et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase expression by human alveolar macrophages in relation to emphysema,” COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 13–23, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. G. A. Finlay, L. R. O'Driscoll, K. J. Russell et al., “Matrix metalloproteinase expression and production by alveolar macrophages in emphysema,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 156, no. 1, pp. 240–247, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  190. A. M. Wallace, L. B. Loy, R. T. Abboud et al., “Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in alveolar macrophages, type II pneumocytes, and airways in smokers: relationship to lung function and emphysema,” Lung, vol. 192, no. 4, pp. 467–472, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. L. Segura-Valdez, A. Pardo, M. Gaxiola, B. D. Uhal, C. Becerril, and M. Selman, “Upregulation of gelatinases A and B, collagenases 1 and 2, and increased parenchymal cell death in COPD,” Chest, vol. 117, no. 3, pp. 684–694, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  192. P. G. Woodruff, L. L. Koth, Y. H. Yang et al., “A distinctive alveolar macrophage activation state induced by cigarette smoking,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 172, no. 11, pp. 1383–1392, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. S. Molet, C. Belleguic, H. Lena et al., “Increase in macrophage elastase (MMP-12) in lungs from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Inflammation Research, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 31–36, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. K. Imai, S. S. Dalal, E. S. Chen et al., “Human collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase-1) expression in the lungs of patients with emphysema,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 3, pp. 786–791, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  195. S. Lim, N. Roche, B. G. Oliver, W. Mattos, P. J. Barnes, and K. F. Chung, “Balance of matrix metalloprotease-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease-1 from alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers. Regulation by interleukin-10,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 1355–1360, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  196. K. Krotova, G. W. Marek, R. L. Wang et al., “Alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient macrophages have increased matriptase-mediated proteolytic activity,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 238–247, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  197. A. Churg, R. D. Wang, H. Tai et al., “Macrophage metalloelastase mediates acute cigarette smoke–induced inflammation via tumor necrosis factor-α release,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 167, no. 8, pp. 1083–1089, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. S. J. Cho, M. D. Weiden, and C. G. Lee, “Chitotriosidase in the pathogenesis of inflammation, interstitial lung diseases and COPD,” Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 14–21, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  199. S. Létuvé, A. Kozhich, A. Humbles et al., “Lung chitinolytic activity and chitotriosidase are elevated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and contribute to lung inflammation,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 638–649, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. S. Létuvé, A. Kozhich, N. Arouche et al., “YKL-40 is elevated in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and activates alveolar macrophages,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 181, no. 7, pp. 5167–5173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  201. M. Lundborg, S. E. Dahlén, U. Johard et al., “Aggregates of ultrafine particles impair phagocytosis of microorganisms by human alveolar macrophages,” Environmental Research, vol. 100, no. 2, pp. 197–204, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. M. Lundborg, U. Johard, L. Låstbom, P. Gerde, and P. Camner, “Human alveolar macrophage phagocytic function is impaired by aggregates of ultrafine carbon particles,” Environmental Research, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 244–253, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. P. Martí-Lliteras, V. Regueiro, P. Morey et al., “Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae clearance by alveolar macrophages is impaired by exposure to cigarette smoke,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 77, no. 10, pp. 4232–4242, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. C. S. Berenson, M. A. Garlipp, L. J. Grove, J. Maloney, and S. Sethi, “Impaired phagocytosis of nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae by human alveolar macrophages in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 194, no. 10, pp. 1375–1384, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. A. E. Taylor, T. K. Finney-Hayward, J. K. Quint et al., “Defective macrophage phagocytosis of bacteria in COPD,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1039–1047, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. C. S. Berenson, R. L. Kruzel, C. T. Wrona, M. J. Mammen, and S. Sethi, “Impaired innate COPD alveolar macrophage responses and Toll-like receptor-9 polymorphisms,” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 9, article e0134209, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. C. S. Berenson, R. L. Kruzel, E. Eberhardt, and S. Sethi, “Phagocytic dysfunction of human alveolar macrophages and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 208, no. 12, pp. 2036–2045, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. A. Vecchiarelli, M. Dottorini, M. Puliti, T. Todisco, E. Cenci, and F. Bistoni, “Defective candidacidal activity of alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes from patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 143, 5, Part 1, pp. 1049–1054, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  209. F. Ferrara, D. D’Adda, M. Falchi, and L. Dall’Asta, “The macrophagic activity of patients affected by pneumonia or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” International Journal of Tissue Reactions, vol. 18, no. 4-6, pp. 109–114, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  210. J. C. Phipps, D. M. Aronoff, J. L. Curtis, D. Goel, E. O’Brien, and P. Mancuso, “Cigarette smoke exposure impairs pulmonary bacterial clearance and alveolar macrophage complement-mediated phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae,” Infection and Immunity, vol. 78, no. 3, pp. 1214–1220, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. Y. Higashimoto, Y. Fukuchi, K. Ishida et al., “Effect of chronic tobacco smoke exposure on the function of alveolar macrophages in mice,” Respiration, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 23–27, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. A. Prieto, E. Reyes, E. D. Bernstein et al., “Defective natural killer and phagocytic activities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are restored by glycophosphopeptical (inmunoferón),” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 163, no. 7, pp. 1578–1583, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  213. G. Müns, I. Rubinstein, and K. C. Bergmann, “Phagocytosis and oxidative burst of blood phagocytes in chronic obstructive airway disease,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 369–373, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  214. R. W. Vandivier, P. M. Henson, and I. S. Douglas, “Burying the dead: the impact of failed apoptotic cell removal (efferocytosis) on chronic inflammatory lung disease,” Chest, vol. 129, no. 6, pp. 1673–1682, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  215. P. A. Kirkham, G. Spooner, I. Rahman, and A. G. Rossi, “Macrophage phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils is compromised by matrix proteins modified by cigarette smoke and lipid peroxidation products,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 318, no. 1, pp. 32–37, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. N. Minematsu, A. Blumental-Perry, and S. D. Shapiro, “Cigarette smoke inhibits engulfment of apoptotic cells by macrophages through inhibition of actin rearrangement,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 474–482, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. O. Eltboli, M. Bafadhel, F. Hollins et al., “COPD exacerbation severity and frequency is associated with impaired macrophage efferocytosis of eosinophils,” BMC Pulmonary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 112, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. S. Hodge, G. Hodge, R. Scicchitano, P. N. Reynolds, and M. Holmes, “Alveolar macrophages from subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are deficient in their ability to phagocytose apoptotic airway epithelial cells,” Immunology & Cell Biology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 289–296, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. S. Hodge, G. Hodge, J. Ahern, H. Jersmann, M. Holmes, and P. N. Reynolds, “Smoking alters alveolar macrophage recognition and phagocytic ability: implications in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 748–755, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  220. A. Kazeros, B.-G. Harvey, B. J. Carolan, H. Vanni, A. Krause, and R. G. Crystal, “Overexpression of apoptotic cell removal receptor MERTK in alveolar macrophages of cigarette smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 747–757, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. K. A. Serban, D. N. Petrusca, A. Mikosz et al., “Alpha-1 antitrypsin supplementation improves alveolar macrophages efferocytosis and phagocytosis following cigarette smoke exposure,” PLoS One, vol. 12, no. 4, article e0176073, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. H. B. Tran, J. Barnawi, M. Ween et al., “Cigarette smoke inhibits efferocytosis via deregulation of sphingosine kinase signaling: reversal with exogenous S1P and the S1P analogue FTY720,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 195–202, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  223. J. Barnawi, H. Jersmann, R. Haberberger, S. Hodge, and R. Meech, “Reduced DNA methylation of sphingosine-1 phosphate receptor 5 in alveolar macrophages in COPD: a potential link to failed efferocytosis,” Respirology, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 315–321, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. J. Barnawi, H. Tran, H. Jersmann et al., “Potential link between the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) system and defective alveolar macrophage phagocytic function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD),” PLoS One, vol. 10, no. 10, article e0122771, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  225. D. N. Petrusca, Y. Gu, J. J. Adamowicz et al., “Sphingolipid-mediated inhibition of apoptotic cell clearance by alveolar macrophages,” Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 285, no. 51, pp. 40322–40332, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. M. Baqir, C. Z. Chen, R. J. Martin et al., “Cigarette smoke decreases MARCO expression in macrophages: implication in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection,” Respiratory Medicine, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1604–1610, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. J. A. Ohar, R. F. Hamilton Jr, S. Zheng et al., “COPD Is associated with a macrophage scavenger receptor-1 gene sequence variation,” Chest, vol. 137, no. 5, pp. 1098–1107, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. M. A. Bewley, K. B. R. Belchamber, K. K. Chana et al., “Differential effects of p38, MAPK, PI3K or rho kinase inhibitors on bacterial phagocytosis and efferocytosis by macrophages in COPD,” PLoS One, vol. 11, no. 9, article e0163139, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. T. R. Richens, D. J. Linderman, S. A. Horstmann et al., “Cigarette smoke impairs clearance of apoptotic cells through oxidant-dependent activation of RhoA,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 179, no. 11, pp. 1011–1021, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  230. M. A. Bewley, J. A. Preston, M. Mohasin et al., “Impaired mitochondrial microbicidal responses in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease macrophages,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 196, no. 7, pp. 845–855, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  231. F. O. Martinez and S. Gordon, “The M1 and M2 paradigm of macrophage activation: time for reassessment,” F1000Prime Reports, vol. 6, p. 13, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. F. Ginhoux, J. L. Schultze, P. J. Murray, J. Ochando, and S. K. Biswas, “New insights into the multidimensional concept of macrophage ontogeny, activation and function,” Nature Immunology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 34–40, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. A. R. Pons, A. Noguera, D. Blanquer, J. Sauleda, J. Pons, and A. G. Agustí, “Phenotypic characterisation of alveolar macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes in COPD,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 647–652, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. J. M. Löfdahl, J. Wahlström, and C. M. Sköld, “Different inflammatory cell pattern and macrophage phenotype in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients, smokers and non-smokers,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 145, no. 3, pp. 428–437, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. Y. Kaku, H. Imaoka, Y. Morimatsu et al., “Overexpression of CD163, CD204 and CD206 on alveolar macrophages in the lungs of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” PLoS One, vol. 9, no. 1, article e87400, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  236. D. Droemann, T. Goldmann, T. Tiedje, P. Zabel, K. Dalhoff, and B. Schaaf, “Toll-like receptor 2 expression is decreased on alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers and COPD patients,” Respiratory Research, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  237. Y. Wu, H. Xu, L. Li, W. Yuan, D. Zhang, and W. Huang, “Susceptibility to Aspergillus infections in rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via deficiency function of alveolar macrophages and impaired activation of TLR2,” Inflammation, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 1310–1318, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. A. Koarai, S. Yanagisawa, H. Sugiura et al., “Cigarette smoke augments the expression and responses of Toll-like receptor 3 in human macrophages,” Respirology, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1018–1025, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. L. I. Z. Kunz, T. S. Lapperre, J. B. Snoeck-Stroband et al., “Smoking status and anti-inflammatory macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage and induced sputum in COPD,” Respiratory Research, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 34, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. P. Gutierrez, D. Closa, R. Piñer, O. Bulbena, R. Menéndez, and A. Torres, “Macrophage activation in exacerbated COPD with and without community-acquired pneumonia,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 285–291, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  241. J. G. McComb, M. Ranganathan, X. H. Liu et al., “CX3CL1 up-regulation is associated with recruitment of CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes in the lungs during cigarette smoke-induced emphysema,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 173, no. 4, pp. 949–961, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. L. Landsman and S. Jung, “Lung macrophages serve as obligatory intermediate between blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 179, no. 6, pp. 3488–3494, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  243. L. Landsman, C. Varol, and S. Jung, “Distinct differentiation potential of blood monocyte subsets in the lung,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 2000–2007, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  244. Z. Xiong, A. S. Leme, P. Ray, S. D. Shapiro, and J. S. Lee, “CX3CR1+ lung mononuclear phagocytes spatially confined to the interstitium produce TNF-α and IL-6 and promote cigarette smoke-induced emphysema,” The Journal of Immunology, vol. 186, no. 5, pp. 3206–3214, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  245. M. Frankenberger, M. Menzel, R. Betz et al., “Characterization of a population of small macrophages in induced sputum of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy volunteers,” Clinical & Experimental Immunology, vol. 138, no. 3, pp. 507–516, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. K. Dhaliwal, E. Scholefield, D. Ferenbach et al., “Monocytes control second-phase neutrophil emigration in established lipopolysaccharide-induced murine lung injury,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 186, no. 6, pp. 514–524, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. S. Poliska, E. Csanky, A. Szanto et al., “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific gene expression signatures of alveolar macrophages as well as peripheral blood monocytes overlap and correlate with lung function,” Respiration, vol. 81, no. 6, pp. 499–510, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  248. S. L. Traves, S. J. Smith, P. J. Barnes, and L. E. Donnelly, “Specific CXC but not CC chemokines cause elevated monocyte migration in COPD: a role for CXCR2,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 76, no. 2, pp. 441–450, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  249. C. Costa, S. L. Traves, S. J. Tudhope et al., “Enhanced monocyte migration to CXCR3 and CCR5 chemokines in COPD,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 1093–1102, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. T. Tschernig, A. Rabung, M. Voss, C. Meier, R. Bals, and C. Beisswenger, “Chronic inhalation of cigarette smoke reduces phagocytosis in peripheral blood leukocytes,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 705, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  251. S. Pérez-Rial, L. del Puerto-Nevado, R. Terrón-Expósito, Á. Girón-Martínez, N. González-Mangado, and G. Peces-Barba, “Role of recently migrated monocytes in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation in different strain of mice,” PLoS One, vol. 8, no. 9, article e72975, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  252. N. Chaudhuri, H. Jary, S. Lea et al., “Diesel exhaust particle exposure in vitro alters monocyte differentiation and function,” PLoS One, vol. 7, no. 12, article e51107, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  253. G. C. Nicholson, R. C. Tennant, D. C. Carpenter et al., “A novel flow cytometric assay of human whole blood neutrophil and monocyte CD11b levels: upregulation by chemokines is related to receptor expression, comparison with neutrophil shape change, and effects of a chemokine receptor (CXCR2) antagonist,” Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 52–59, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  254. X. Dang, X. Qu, W. Wang et al., “Bioinformatic analysis of microRNA and mRNA regulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,” Respiratory Research, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 4, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  255. Y. Chen, P. Huang, W. Ai et al., “Histone deacetylase activity is decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in patients with COPD,” Journal of Inflammation, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 10, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  256. J. L. López-Campos, W. Tan, and J. B. Soriano, “Global burden of COPD,” Respirology, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 14–23, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  257. A. B. van oud Alblas and R. van Furth, “Origin, kinetics, and characteristics of pulmonary macrophages in the normal steady state,” Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 149, no. 6, pp. 1504–1518, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  258. A. d. Stefano, A. Capelli, M. Lusuardi et al., “Severity of airflow limitation is associated with severity of airway inflammation in smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 158, no. 4, pp. 1277–1285, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  259. M. Saetta, A. di Stefano, P. Maestrelli et al., “Activated T-lymphocytes and macrophages in bronchial mucosa of subjects with chronic bronchitis,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 147, no. 2, pp. 301–306, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  260. R. Finkelstein, R. S. Fraser, H. Ghezzo, and M. G. Cosio, “Alveolar inflammation and its relation to emphysema in smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 152, no. 5, pp. 1666–1672, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  261. W. F. Grashoff, J. K. Sont, P. J. Sterk et al., “Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: role of bronchiolar mast cells and macrophages,” The American Journal of Pathology, vol. 151, no. 6, pp. 1785–1790, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  262. K. Tomita, G. Caramori, S. Lim et al., “Increased p21CIP1/WAF1 and B cell lymphoma leukemia-xL expression and reduced apoptosis in alveolar macrophages from smokers,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 166, no. 5, pp. 724–731, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. M. Beyer, K. Händler, P. Günther et al., “Navigating disease phenotypes–a multidimensional single-cell resolution compass leads the way,” Current Opinion in Systems Biology, vol. 3, pp. 147–153, 2017. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar