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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 3487095, 8 pages
Research Article

Parenterally Administered Norovirus GII.4 Virus-Like Particle Vaccine Formulated with Aluminum Hydroxide or Monophosphoryl Lipid A Adjuvants Induces Systemic but Not Mucosal Immune Responses in Mice

Vaccine Research Center, University of Tampere, Tampere, Finland

Correspondence should be addressed to Vesna Blazevic; if.atu@civezalb.ansev

Received 31 August 2017; Accepted 16 January 2018; Published 28 February 2018

Academic Editor: Nejat K. Egilmez

Copyright © 2018 Suvi Heinimäki et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Norovirus (NoV) is a main cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. NoV vaccine candidates currently in clinical trials are based on noninfectious highly immunogenic virus-like particles (VLPs) delivered intramuscularly (IM). Since NoV is an enteric pathogen, it is likely that mucosal immunity has a significant role in protection from infection in the intestine. Due to the fact that IM delivery of NoV VLPs does not generate mucosal immunity, we investigated whether NoV genotype GII.4 VLPs coadministered with aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH)3) or monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) would induce mucosal antibodies in mice. Systemic as well as mucosal IgG and IgA antibodies in serum and intestinal and nasal secretions were measured. As expected, strong serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a antibodies as well as a dose sparing effect were induced by both Al(OH)3 and MPLA, but no mucosal IgA antibodies were detected. In contrast, IN immunization with GII.4 VLPs without an adjuvant induced systemic as well as mucosal IgA antibody response. These results indicate that mucosal delivery of NoV VLPs is needed for induction of mucosal responses.