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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 3696914, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/3696914
Review Article

How Hippo Signaling Pathway Modulates Cardiovascular Development and Diseases

1Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510100, China
2Guangzhou Medical University, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510000, China
3Department of Pediatrics, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Mingyi Zhao

Received 19 October 2017; Accepted 12 November 2017; Published 8 February 2018

Academic Editor: Abdallah Elkhal

Copyright © 2018 Wenyi Zhou and Mingyi Zhao. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death around the globe. Cardiac deterioration is associated with irreversible cardiomyocyte loss. Understanding how the cardiovascular system develops and the pathological processes of cardiac disease will contribute to finding novel and preventive therapeutic methods. The canonical Hippo tumor suppressor pathway in mammalian cells is primarily composed of the MST1/2-SAV1-LATS1/2-MOB1-YAP/TAZ cascade. Continuing research on this pathway has identified other factors like RASSF1A, Nf2, MAP4Ks, and NDR1/2, further enriching our knowledge of the Hippo-YAP pathway. YAP, the core effecter of the Hippo pathway, may accumulate in the nucleus and initiate transcriptional activity if the pathway is inhibited. The role of Hippo signaling has been widely investigated in organ development and cancers. A heart of normal size and function which is critical for survival could not be generated without the proper regulation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Recent research has demonstrated a novel role of Hippo signaling in cardiovascular disease in the context of development, hypertrophy, angiogenesis, regeneration, apoptosis, and autophagy. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of how Hippo signaling modulates pathological processes in cardiovascular disease and discuss potential molecular therapeutic targets.