Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 3710961, 9 pages
Research Article

Leaf-Encapsulated Vaccines: Agroinfiltration and Transient Expression of the Antigen Staphylococcal Endotoxin B in Radish Leaves

1Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
2Department of Immunology, Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD 21703, USA
3Department of Biological & Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
4Department of Dermatology and Moores Cancer Center, University of California, San Diego, CA 92161, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Chun-Ming Huang; ude.dscu@gnimnuhc

Received 26 February 2017; Revised 24 September 2017; Accepted 10 October 2017; Published 7 February 2018

Academic Editor: Stuart Berzins

Copyright © 2018 Pei-Feng Liu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Transgene introgression is a major concern associated with transgenic plant-based vaccines. Agroinfiltration can be used to selectively transform nonreproductive organs and avoid introgression. Here, we introduce a new vaccine modality in which Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) genes are agroinfiltrated into radishes (Raphanw sativus L.), resulting in transient expression and accumulation of SEB in planta. This approach can simultaneously express multiple antigens in a single leaf. Furthermore, the potential of high-throughput vaccine production was demonstrated by simultaneously agroinfiltrating multiple radish leaves using a multichannel pipette. The expression of SEB was detectable in two leaf cell types (epidermal and guard cells) in agroinfiltrated leaves. ICR mice intranasally immunized with homogenized leaves agroinfiltrated with SEB elicited detectable antibody to SEB and displayed protection against SEB-induced interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production. The concept of encapsulating antigens in leaves rather than purifying them for immunization may facilitate rapid vaccine production during an epidemic disease.