Activation of PAR4 Upregulates p16 through Inhibition of DNMT1 and HDAC2 Expression via MAPK Signals in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells
Immunohistochemical staining for DNMT1 and HDAC2 in ESCC tissues and effects of PAR4-AP on their expressions in ESCC cell lines after PAR4-AP treatment. (a) Representative immunostaining for DNMT1 and HDAC2 in ESCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. Sections were counterstained with hematoxylin. Scale bar: 100 μm. Graphs showing DNMT1 and HDAC2 immunostaining in ESCC tissues and adjacent noncancerous tissues. The data are expressed as the mean ± SEM. (Student’s t-test). Immunoreactivity was calculated by multiplying the percentage and intensity scores. (b) Examples of Western blotting showing DNMT1 and HDAC2 expressions in ESCC cell lines (EC109 and TE-1) with PAR4-AP treatment at 0, 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The mean optic densities of the proteins were calculated by normalizing to GAPDH. The data are presented as the mean ± SEM (), versus controls.
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