Cyanidin-3-glucoside Alleviates 4-Hydroxyhexenal-Induced NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation via JNK-c-Jun/AP-1 Pathway in Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
C3G inhibited HHE-induced antiproliferative effect via suppressing RPE cell apoptosis. (a) HHE showed antiproliferative effects in ARPE-19 cells. ARPE-19 cells were incubated with various dosages of HHE for 24 h in serum-free culture mediums, and then the cell viability was measured by cell counting kit- (CCK-) 8 and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) tests as described in Materials and Methods. (b) C3G showed protective effects against HHE-induced antiproliferative effects in ARPE-19 cells. Cells are incubated with or without C3G for 2 h then challenged with HHE for 24 h in serum-free culture mediums. The cell viability was measured by CCK-8 assay and LDH tests. (c) Cell apoptosis induced by HHE was inhibited by C3G. C3Gs (50, 100 μM) were pretreated to the ARPE-19 cells for 2 h, and then HHE was challenged for 24 h in serum-free culture mediums. ARPE-19 cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/PI staining. Data reported as percentage of Annexin V-positive cells (early and late apoptotic cells). (d) Caspase-1 activity was measured by a colorimetric assay. Bars with different letters are significantly different from each other (, ).
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