The Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist Exendin-4 Inhibits Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption via Inhibition of TNF-α Expression in Macrophages
Exendin-4 inhibited LPS-induced bone resorption in vivo. (a) 3D reconstructed images of calvariae from micro-CT scanning. Mice were subjected to 5-day daily subcutaneous injections on the calvariae with PBS, LPS (100 μg/day) with or without exendin-4 (20 μg/day), and exendin-4 (20 μg/day), and calvariae were excised on the sixth day. The red dots indicate areas of bony destruction. (b) Ratio of bone destruction area to total bone area. Data is expressed as means ± SD (;, ). The statistical significance of differences was determined by Scheffe’s test. (c) Serum levels of C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) determined by a mouse CTX assay kit. Data is expressed as means ± SD. The statistical significance of differences was determined using Scheffe’s test (; ).