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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 8695157, 14 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8695157
Review Article

Receptors That Inhibit Macrophage Activation: Mechanisms and Signals of Regulation and Tolerance

Laboratorio de Inmunología Integrativa, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias “Ismael Cosío Villegas”, Ciudad de México, Mexico

Correspondence should be addressed to Isabel Sada-Ovalle; moc.liamg@xmadasi

Received 26 July 2017; Revised 7 November 2017; Accepted 20 November 2017; Published 11 February 2018

Academic Editor: Kebin Hu

Copyright © 2018 Ranferi Ocaña-Guzman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A variety of receptors perform the function of attenuating or inhibiting activation of cells in which they are expressed. Examples of these kinds of receptors include TIM-3 and PD-1, among others that have been widely studied in cells of lymphoid origin and, though to a lesser degree, in other cell lines. Today, several studies describe the function of these molecules as part of the diverse mechanisms of immune tolerance that exist in the immune system. This review analyzes the function of some of these proteins in monocytes and macrophages and as well as their participation as inhibitory molecules or elements of immunological tolerance that also act in innate defense mechanisms. We chose the receptors TIM-3, PD-1, CD32b, and CD200R because these molecules have distinct functional characteristics that provide examples of the different regulating mechanisms in monocytes and macrophages.