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Journal of Immunology Research
Volume 2018, Article ID 8720101, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/8720101
Review Article

Hepatitis C Infection and Periodontal Disease: Is there a Common Immunological Link?

1Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 2 Petru Rares street, 200349 Craiova, Romania
2Department of Biochemistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”, 16 Universitatii street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
3Department of Oral Surgery, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”, 16 Universitatii street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
4Department of Implantology, University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Grigore T. Popa”, 16 Universitatii street, 700115 Iasi, Romania
5Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Craiova, 2 Petru Rares street, 200349 Craiova, Romania

Correspondence should be addressed to Petra Surlin; moc.liamtoh@nilrusp

Received 9 August 2017; Revised 31 December 2017; Accepted 3 January 2018; Published 13 March 2018

Academic Editor: Peirong Jiao

Copyright © 2018 Dorin Nicolae Gheorghe et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections could have an important impact on the oral health status of patients, favoring conditions such as periodontal disease and oral cancer. The review of the existing scientific literature written in English was performed, searching for oral and periodontal manifestations of HCV infection and its impact on the oral fluids. HCV infection can determine direct extrahepatic manifestations at the oral and periodontal level including oral lichen planus, Sjögren-like sialadenitis, and oral cancer. The changes caused by the infection in the subjects’ immune system, diet, and lifestyle can facilitate the development of oral conditions such as periodontal disease. Important changes also occur in the composition of the infected patients’ saliva and gingival fluid. HCV-infected patients need to be carefully monitored in terms of oral health since the infection with the virus can result in oral complications. The cellular and molecular particularities of the gingival fluid of HCV-infected patients can answer some questions regarding its impact upon periodontium impairment and whether this refers to a possible bidirectional relationship, with hepatic biomarker adjustments being induced by the periodontal patients’ inflammatory status.