Table 1: Clinical characteristics of the participants enrolled in the study.

GroupsNC ()CHB ()HBV-ACLF ()

Gender (male)172429
Age (years)
ALT (U/L)186.5 (34-2424)187.5 (27-2879)
AST (U/L)211.5 (56-2646)163 (66-1859)
Tbil (μmol/L)N.D.186.9 (39.1-826.2)489.6 (204.5-1157.0)
PTA (%)N.D.85 (46-126)34 (14-40)
Albumin (g/L)N.D.40.2 (35.4-50.7)
Globulin (g/L)N.D.29.9 (22.8-43.9)
HBV-DNA (log10IU/mL)N.D.
Hepatic encephalopathy0011
Hepatorenal syndrome002
MELD scoreN.D.N.D.
MELD-Na scoreN.D.N.D.
IgG (g/L)16.83 (8.86-30.76)
Elevated IgG (>1 ULN)01325
IgA (g/L)
Elevated IgA (>1 ULN)0614
IgM (g/L)0.92 (0.54-1.75)1.38 (0.75-3.47)2.19 (1.09-5.41)
Elevated IgM (>1 ULN)0215
HBsAg positive02430
HBsAb positive1800
HbeAg positive01612

Data are shown as or medians and ranges. ACLF: acute-on-chronic liver failure; CHB: chronic hepatitis B; NC: normal control; ALT: alanine aminotransferase; AST: aspartate aminotransferase; Tbil: total bilirubin; PTA: prothrombin time activity; SBP: spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; UGB: upper gastrointestinal bleeding; MELD: model for end-stage liver disease; CLIF-C: Chronic Liver Failure Consortium; IgG: immunoglobulin G; IgA: immunoglobulin A; IgM: immunoglobulin M; ULN: upper limit of normal; N.D: not determined.