Journal of Immunology Research / 2019 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Cutting Edge: Probiotics and Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Immunomodulation

Table 1

The immunomodulatory components of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium.

Probiotic generaProbiotic strainsImmunomodulatory components of probioticsReferences

LactobacillusL. acidophilus, L. amylovorus, L. bulgaricus, L. crispatus, L. casei, L. gasseri, L. helveticus, L. johnsonii, L. pentosus, L. reuteri, L. paracasei, L. plantarum, L. rhamnosus(1) Lipoteichoic acid stimulates NO synthase
(2) Lipoproteins and LTA can potentially signal through binding to TLR2 in combination with TLR6
(3) Unmethylated DNA fragments containing CpG motifs mediate anti-inflammatory effects via TLR9 signaling at the epithelial surface
(4) Highly O-acetylated peptidoglycan might affect the release of NLR stimulating PG fragments and innate immune responses of antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages
(5) EPS and other cell wall polysaccharides could be recognized by CLRs that are involved in the recognition and capture of antigens by antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells and macrophages

BifidobacteriumB. animalis, B. breve, B. infantis, B. bifidum, B. lactis, B. catenulatum, B. longum, B. adolescentis(1) Lipoteichoic acid stimulates NO synthase
(2) Bifidobacterial proteins are one of the targets of human immunoglobulins, notably IgA
(3) Although no specific host receptors have been found, EPS has been recognized as an effector of the interaction between probiotics and the host immune system
(4) Bifidobacteria possess genomes with high G+C proportions, and unmethylated CpG motifs derived from them can interact with the TLR 9 present on immune cells
(5) The peptidoglycan hydrolase TgaA is shown to induce IL-2 production in the monocyte-derived dendritic cell, the key cytokine in Treg cell expansion
(6) The specific interaction between pili and gastrointestinal mucosa
[41, 144146]

NO: nitric oxide; PG: peptidoglycan; LTA: lipoteichoic acid; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; EPS: exopolysaccharides.

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