Figure 1: Expression of APC surface markers and costimulatory molecules in activated HMCs. (a) HMCs were incubated in medium containing IFN-γ (50 ng/ml) for 48 h, and the expression of HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, ICAM-1, and CD80 was assessed by real-time PCR. (b) Western blots showing the protein expression levels of HLA-DR, ICAM-1, and CD80 in control and IFN-γ-treated HMCs after 48 h; β-actin was used as the loading control. (c) HMCs were cultured for 48 h with or without IFN-γ stimulation, and levels of the surface molecules HLA-DR, CD80, ICAM-1, and CD40 were determined by FCM. The data in (a) were analysed using Student’s -test. The data are representative of three independent experiments, and the error bars represent the . Control (Con): HMCs treated without IFN-γ. vs. Con.