Table 4: Association (odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)) of frailty with the variables of interest, including olfactory dysfunction, according to the logistic regression model. All the covariates were entered simultaneously into the regression model.

OR95% CI

Age (each year)1.151.09-1.21<.001
Sex (female).92.52-1.64.778
Education (years).95.86-1.05.306
Malignancy1.72.65-4.57.279
Peripheral arterial disease2.461.29-4.69.006
ACE inhibitors1.65.87-3.12.122
Benzodiazepines1.15.63-2.10.653
Glomerular filtration rate (mL/min)1.021.01-1.04.018
CES-D1.111.07-1.14.000
Olfactory dysfunction1.941.07-3.51.028