Human Immune System Increases Breast Cancer-Induced Osteoblastic Bone Growth in a Humanized Mouse Model without Affecting Normal Bone
Tumor growth and TILs in NOG and huNOG mice. (a) Representative HE-stained sections of the tumor-bearing tibias of NOG and huNOG mice, magnification 5x. (b) Quantitation of the tumor area (only tumor cells) in the bone marrow (mm2, ). Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and pairwise comparisons using Dunnett’s test. Statistical significance is marked as . (c) Representative images of CD3 (T cells), CD4 (T helper cells), CD8 (cytotoxic T cells), and CD20 (B cells) in tumors growing in the bone, magnification 20x. (d) Representative images of immune checkpoint inhibitors PD-L1 (programmed death-ligand 1), PD-1 (programmed cell death protein 1), and CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4) in the spleen, lymph nodes, and tumors, magnification 20x.
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