Journal of Immunology Research / 2019 / Article / Fig 3

Research Article

Lipid-Rich Extract from Mexican Avocado Seed (Persea americana var. drymifolia) Reduces Staphylococcus aureus Internalization and Regulates Innate Immune Response in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

Figure 3

The conditioned media of LEAS-pretreated bMECs showed antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. (a) Effect of conditioned medium from bMECs treated with vehicle (DMSO 0.1%) or LEAS (100 ng/ml) for 24 h on S. aureus viability. Bacteria were incubated 2 h with conditioned media. The number of CFU recovered is shown. The results are the average of three independent experiments performed in triplicate. Vehicle (DMSO 0.1%). indicates significant changes (, Student’s -test). (b) Nitric oxide and (c) ROS production in bMECs treated with 100 ng/ml of LEAS for 24 h and then challenged with S. aureus for 2 h. NO production was measured as NO2- concentration in culture medium. ROS production was evaluated by flow cytometry. In (b, c), cells stimulated with LPS (1 μg/ml, 24 h) were used as a positive control. Each bar shows the mean of of three independent experiments. indicates significant changes (, Student’s -test) within the treatment. Vehicle (DMSO 0.1%).
(a)
(b)
(c)

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.