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Figure 2: Increased STAT3 target gene expression and stat3 mRNA expression in the inflamed ileum of Crohn’s disease patients. (a) Representative H&E staining illustrates histological appearance in unaffected and inflamed terminal ileum of CD patients. Compared to unaffected ileum, the inflamed ileum showed distinct histological signs of inflammation, including increased infiltration of immune cells in the lamina propria, loss of intact small intestinal architecture, and ulceration. Images were obtained under 20x magnification. . (b) stat3 mRNA expression was upregulated in the inflamed ileum of CD patients (), compared to unaffected ileum tissues (). The gene expression fold change was calculated as 2^-ΔΔCt value, using GAPDH as endogenous control. Statistical analysis was done by the unpaired Mann-Whitney test, . (c) Altered expression pattern of inflammatory genes in the inflamed tissues of CD patients. Among these genes, an increased STAT3-related gene expression was observed in the inflamed ileum of CD patients. GAPDH was used as endogenous control.