Journal of Immunology Research / 2020 / Article / Fig 1

Research Article

BCG-Induced Trained Immunity in Healthy Individuals: The Effect of Plasma Muramyl Dipeptide Concentrations

Figure 1

The proposed role of MDP in trained immunity. Upon BCG vaccination, MDP binds to NOD2 in innate immune cells, thereby inducing cytokine production in the periphery, which could indirectly induce long-term reprogramming of bone marrow hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Alternatively, MDP may directly access the bone marrow to skew HSPCs, which is also influenced by MDP released by the microbiome.