BCG-Induced Trained Immunity in Healthy Individuals: The Effect of Plasma Muramyl Dipeptide Concentrations
The strength of trained immunity responses upon BCG vaccination is associated with circulating MDP concentrations at baseline. (a) Spearman correlation of circulating MDP concentrations before BCG vaccination and fold changes of cytokine production before versus after vaccination upon ex vivo stimulation with S. aureus and M. tuberculosis (M. tb) (). Significant correlation between IL-6 production and MDP concentrations is shown. (b) Spearman correlation of circulating MDP concentrations at baseline and fold changes of cytokine production to S. aureus and M. tuberculosis restimulation after BCG vaccination (, Spearman correlation). V1 = visit 1 (before vaccination); V2 = visit 2 (two weeks after vaccination); V3 = visit 3 (three months after vaccination). Cells of both rho and value are colored based on rho value. Significant changes are underlined.