Dysbiosis of Gut Microbiota Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression by Regulating the Immune Response
Gut microbiota richness, profiles, and compositions shifted in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. Microbial α-diversity showed decreased (a) Observed species and (b) Chao1 index in patients with HCC progression, indicating reduced richness. (c) Shannon index and (d) Simpson index decreased significantly with HCC progression. This diminished number of bacteria was accompanied by decreased evenness. The box plots show the smallest and largest values, 25% and 75% quartiles, the median, and outliers. Significant difference () was indicated by an asterisk. (e) Comparison of principal component analysis (PCA) using weighted UniFrac distance showed that the overall fecal microbiota composition (β-diversity) distinguished bacterial profiles among early, intermediate, and terminal groups of patients with HCC. Each dot represented one sample, and the distance between the samples represented the difference in community composition of the samples. (f) Histogram of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) scores for differentially abundant taxa among patients with HCC in the early, intermediate, and terminal groups. Red indicates early group HCC, green indicates intermediated group HCC, and blue indicates terminal group HCC. (g) Change in the ratio of Enterococcaceae to Bifidobacteriaceae with HCC progression.
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