Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis of the oral microbiomes in young male and female patients with severe and advanced periodontitis. (a) Histogram of the LDA scores of males and females. Female-enriched taxa are indicated by a positive LDA score (green), and taxa enriched in males have a negative score (red). (b) Taxonomic cladogram obtained from LEfSe analysis. Red indicates male, green indicates female, and yellow indicates nonsignificant between males and females. (c) Point map of species importance. The horizontal axis is the measure of importance, and the vertical axis is the name of the species sorted by importance.