Journal of Immunology Research

Xenotransplantation: The Way Beyond and Ahead toward Clinical Application


Lead Editor

1University Hospital of Padua, Padua, Italy

2University of Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv, Israel

Xenotransplantation: The Way Beyond and Ahead toward Clinical Application


Modern transplantology has started at its adventure in the beginning of the 20th century an unprecedented era for medical therapeutics. The opportunity to successfully transplant allogeneic cells, tissues, or organs derived from a donor opened for the first time the possibility to rescue and prolong the recipient’s life.

Nowadays, during the time of prolonged human lifespan, but also of increasing incidence of organ insufficiency, allogeneic transplantation is, unfortunately, not always a viable option due to the unavailability of compatible donors.

In the dramatic scenario of human donor shortage and increasing transplantation waiting lists, the recourse to animals might provide therapeutic solutions for a larger population of patients affected by organ failure. Despite the possible similarities in anatomy and physiology to human tissues and organs, animal equivalents are able to trigger the onset of immunological reactions in the settings of xenotransplantation.

Breakthroughs in glycoimmunology, transplantation, proteomics, and molecular signaling have started to shed light on the culprits and interplays causing the failure of xenotransplantation approaches. Thanks to these new insights, novel modalities to prevent immunological responses have been designed. Innovative strategies have been devised to modulate the recipient’s response to xenografts, to create an interface barrier between human blood and animal equivalent or to reduce the immunogenic power of transplanted cells, tissues, and organs.

In a continuous cross-talk between fundamental and applied research, the translation of novel therapeutic solutions based on animal equivalents into the clinical scenario is closer. However, the route to the clinical application of xenografts presents still many hurdles before reaching such an ambitious therapeutic goal. With this special issue, we aim to offer an overview of the state of the art in xenotransplantation with reference to the continuous advancements and potential issues in this medical field.

Potential topics include but are not limited to the following:

  • Definition of pathophysiologic pathways and interplays involved in xenotransplantation immunology
  • Glycoimmunology of xenogeneic tissues
  • Animal models
  • Stem cell xenotransplantation
  • Solid organ xenotransplantation
  • Pharmaceutical strategy to modulate tolerance to xenotransplant
  • Gene engineering strategies to prevent xenotransplant rejection
  • Bioengineering strategies to circumvent xenotransplant rejection
  • Basic research
  • Clinical research
  • Medical and ethical issues related to xenotransplantation experimental investigation and use of xenogeneic organs in human therapy


  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2018
  • - Article ID 6191359
  • - Editorial

Xenotransplantation: The Way beyond and Ahead toward Clinical Application

Laura Iop | Vered Padler-Karavani | Emanuele Cozzi
  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2018
  • - Article ID 6413012
  • - Review Article

Remaining Physiological Barriers in Porcine Kidney Xenotransplantation: Potential Pathways behind Proteinuria as well as Factors Related to Growth Discrepancies following Pig-to-Kidney Xenotransplantation

Jigesh A. Shah | Miguel A. Lanaspa | ... | Kazuhiko Yamada
  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2018
  • - Article ID 1078547
  • - Research Article

Beneficial Effects of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells on Porcine Hepatocyte Viability and Albumin Secretion

Elisa Montanari | Joel Pimenta | ... | Leo H. Buhler
  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2017
  • - Article ID 4627384
  • - Review Article

The Role of NK Cells in Pig-to-Human Xenotransplantation

Gisella Puga Yung | Mårten K. J. Schneider | Jörg D. Seebach
  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2017
  • - Article ID 2534653
  • - Review Article

Porcine to Human Heart Transplantation: Is Clinical Application Now Appropriate?

Christopher G. A. McGregor | Guerard W. Byrne
  • Special Issue
  • - Volume 2017
  • - Article ID 8415205
  • - Review Article

The Role of Costimulation Blockade in Solid Organ and Islet Xenotransplantation

Kannan P. Samy | James R. Butler | ... | Burcin Ekser
Journal of Immunology Research
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate22%
Submission to final decision66 days
Acceptance to publication26 days
Journal Citation Indicator0.560
Impact Factor4.1

Article of the Year Award: Impactful research contributions of 2022, as selected by our Chief Editors. Discover the winning articles.