Reappraisal Value of a Modified Rotational Atherectomy Technique in Contemporary Coronary Angioplasty EraRead the full article
Journal of Interventional Cardiology publishes articles focusing on interventional procedures and techniques in the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease and its associated complications.
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Transcatheter Mitral Valve Implantation (TMVI) Using Edwards SAPIEN 3 Prostheses in Patients at Very High or Prohibitive Surgical Risk: A Single-Center Experience
Background. Mitral valve surgery in patients with failing bioprosthesis, annuloplasty rings, or in patients with advanced mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Percutaneous antegrade transseptal transcatheter mitral valve implantation (TMVI) has recently successfully been performed in those patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk, but data on patients treated by TMVI are sparse. This study sought to evaluate short- and midterm outcomes of patients treated by TMVI at our site in clinical practice. Methods and Results. From October 2016 to February 2018, seven patients (six women and one man) at high or prohibitive surgical risk underwent TMVI at our site. Three procedures were performed as TMVI in failed mitral valve bioprostheses (TMVI-VIV, “valve-in-valve”), one procedure was performed as TMVI in a failed mitral annuloplasty ring (TMVI-R), and three procedures were performed as TMVI in advanced native mitral annular calcification (TMVI-MAC). Mean age of the population treated was 77 ± 8.1 years, and mean log EuroScore I was 39 ± 0.12%. In all patients, an Edwards SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve was implanted under 3D-TOE and fluoroscopic guidance using a transvenous/transseptal access. Indication for TMVI was the presence of advanced heart failure symptoms in all patients (NYHA class III/IV). The predominant dysfunction of the mitral valve treated was severe regurgitation in 72% (n = 5) and severe stenosis in 29% (n = 2) of all patients. TMVI was technically successful in all procedures. Clinical success with functional improvement of at least one NYHA class after procedure compared with before procedure was also achieved in all patients. Median NYHA class improved significantly from 4 before procedure to 2 after TMVI (). Mitral valve regurgitation was reduced to trace or mild in all but one patient, who showed moderate MR after TMVI-MAC. No patient-prosthesis mismatch or LVOT obstruction occurred after TMVI. Two patients underwent interventional ASD closure during the in-hospital course due to a large and persisting atrial septal defect after transseptal access. One patient underwent pacemaker implantation due to complete AV-block after TMVI. One patient died in hospital 12 days after the procedure due to severe hospital-acquired pneumonia and sepsis. In-hospital mortality rate was 14% (1/7) in this high-risk population. After hospital discharge, no death occurred and clinical improvement—according to NYHA functional class—remained stable during one-year follow-up. Conclusion. In this small single-center series, TMVI appears promising for patients at high or prohibitive surgical risk with either failing mitral bioprostheses/annuloplasty rings or native mitral valve dysfunction in combination with advanced MAC. Gaining experience in TMVI and new valves will further improve safety and efficacy of this new treatment option.
Randomized Clinical Trial of Surgical vs. Percutaneous vs. Hybrid Revascularization in Multivessel Coronary Artery Disease: Residual Myocardial Ischemia and Clinical Outcomes at One Year—Hybrid coronary REvascularization Versus Stenting or Surgery (HREVS)
Aim. Optimal revascularization strategy in multivessel (MV) coronary artery disease (CAD) eligible for percutaneous management (PCI) and surgery remains unresolved. We evaluated, in a randomized clinical trial, residual myocardial ischemia (RI) and clinical outcomes of MV-CAD revascularization using coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), hybrid coronary revascularization (HCR), or MV-PCI. Methods. Consecutive MV-CAD patients (n = 155) were randomized (1 : 1 : 1) to conventional CABG (LIMA-LAD plus venous grafts) or HCR (MIDCAB LIMA-LAD followed by PCI for remaining vessels) or MV-PCI (everolimus-eluting CoCr stents) under Heart Team agreement on equal technical and clinical feasibility of each strategy. SPECT at 12 months (primary endpoint of RI that the trial was powered for; a measure of revascularization midterm efficacy and an independent predictor of long-term prognosis) preceded routine angiographic control. Results. Data are given, respectively, for the CABG, HCR, and MV-PCI arms. Incomplete revascularization rate was 8.0% vs. 7.7% vs. 5.7% (). Hospital stay was 13.8 vs. 13.5 vs. 4.5 days (), and sick-leave duration was 23 vs. 16 vs. 8 weeks (). At 12 months, RI was 5 (2, 9)% vs. 5 (3, 7)% vs. 6 (3, 10)% (median; Q1, Q3) with noninferiority values of 0.0006 (HCR vs. CABG) and 0.016 (MV-PCI vs. CABG). Rates of angiographic graft stenosis/occlusion or in-segment restenosis were 20.4% vs. 8.2% vs. 5.9% (). Clinical target vessel/graft failure occurred in 12.0% vs. 11.5% vs. 11.3% (). Major adverse cardiac and cerebral event (MACCE) rate was similar (12% vs. 13.4% vs. 13.2%; ). Conclusion. In this first randomized controlled study comparing CABG, HCR, and MV-PCI, residual myocardial ischemia and MACCE were similar at 12 months. There was no midterm indication of any added value of HCR. Hospital stay and sick-leave duration were shortest with MV-PCI. While longer-term follow-up is warranted, these findings may impact patient and physician choices and healthcare resources utilization. This trial is registered with NCT01699048.
Inflammation-Related MicroRNAs Are Associated with Plaque Stability Calculated by IVUS in Coronary Heart Disease Patients
Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the association between inflammation-related microRNAs (miR-21, 146a, 155) and the plaque stability in coronary artery disease patients. Methods. The expression of miR-21, 146a, and 155 was measured by real-time PCR in 310 consecutive patients. The level of hs-CRP, IL-6, and IL-8 was measured by ELISA. The plaque stability of coronary stenotic lesions was evaluated with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Results. (1) The levels of hs-CRP, IL-6, and IL-8 were significantly increased in the UAP and AMI groups compared with the CPS group (). (2) The expression of miR-21 and miR-146a in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and plasma was significantly higher in CAD patients compared with non-CAD patients, whereas the miR-155 expression in PBMCs and plasma was significantly lower in patients with CAD. (3) The miR-21 expression in PBMCs was higher in UAP and AMI groups compared with CPS group. The miR-146a expression in PBMCs was higher in SAP, UAP, and AMI groups than in CPS group. Although the level of miR-155 in PBMCs was lower in SAP, UAP, and AMI groups than in CPS group. The expression patterns of miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-155 in plasma were consistent with those of PBMCs. (4) The expressions of miR-21 and miR-146a in PBMCs and plasma were significantly higher in the vulnerable plaque group than those in stable plaque group. While miR-155 in PBMCs and plasma was significantly lower in vulnerable plaque group compared with stable plaque group. (5) The levels of miR-21 and miR-146a in PBMCs and plasma were significantly higher in soft plaque group than in fibrous plaque group and calcified plaque group. However, miR-155 in PBMCs and plasma was significantly lower in soft plaque group. Conclusions. The expression of miR-21 and miR-146a are associated with the plaque stability in coronary stenotic lesions, whereas miR-155 expression is inversely associated with the plaque stability.
Changes in Index of Microcirculatory Resistance during PCI in the Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery in Relation to Total Length of Implanted Stents
Aim. To investigate the relationship between stent length and changes in microvascular resistance during PCI in stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods and Results. We measured fractional flow reserve (FFR), index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR), and coronary flow reserve (CFR) before and after stenting in 42 consecutive subjects with stable coronary artery undergoing PCI with stent in the LAD. Patients that had very long stent length (38–78 mm) had lower FFR before stenting than patients that had long (23–37 mm) and moderate (12–22 mm) stent length (0.59 (±0.16), 0.70 (±0.12), and 0.75 (±0.07); ). FFR improved after stenting and more so in subjects with very long stent length compared to long and moderate stent length (0.27 (s.d ± 16), 0.15 (s.d ± 0.12), and 0.12 (s.d ± 0.07); for interaction = 0.013). Corrected IMR (IMRcorr) increased after stenting in subjects who had very long stent length, whereas IMRcorr was lower after stenting in subjects who had long or moderate stent length (4.6 (s.d. ± 10.7), −1.4 (s.d. ± 9,9), and −4.2 (s.d. ± 7.8); for interaction = 0.009). Conclusions. Changes in IMR during PCI in the LAD in stable CAD seem to be related to total length of stents implanted, possibly influencing post-PCI FFR. Larger studies are needed to confirm the relationship.
Outcomes of Emergency Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
Objective. To identify outcomes of patients undergoing emergency transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and determine predictors of in-hospital mortality. Background. Emergency TAVR has emerged as a viable treatment strategy for patients with decompensated severe aortic stenosis and/or regurgitation; however, data on patients undergoing emergency TAVR are limited. Methods. All emergency TAVR procedures were identified from a single tertiary academic center between January 2015 and August 2018. Results. 31 patients underwent emergency TAVR due to cardiogenic shock (26 patients), electrical instability with incessant ventricular tachycardia (2 patients), severe refractory angina (2 patients), and decompensated heart failure with hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (1 patient). Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) was used in 16 (51.6%). MCS initiation occurred immediately prior to TAVR in 10 patients and placed post-TAVR in 6 patients. 6 patients died before hospital discharge (in-hospital mortality 19.4%). 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 61.0% and 55.9%, respectively. Univariate predictors of in-hospital mortality were preprocedural pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) ≤1.8 (66.7% vs. 20.0%, ), intraprocedural cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (83.3% vs 4.0%, ), acute kidney injury post-TAVR (80.0% vs. 4.2%, ), initiation of dialysis post-TAVR (60.0% vs. 4.2%, ), and MCS initiation post-TAVR (50.0% vs. 12.0%, ). MCS initiation before TAVR was associated with improved survival compared with post-TAVR initiation. Conclusion. Emergency TAVR in extreme risk patients with acute decompensated heart failure or cardiogenic shock secondary to severe aortic valve disease is associated with high in-hospital mortality rates. Careful patient selection taking into account right heart function, assessed by PAPi, and early utilization of MCS may improve survival following emergency TAVR.
Enabling Automated Device Size Selection for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation
The number of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) procedures is expected to increase significantly in the coming years. Improving efficiency will become essential for experienced operators performing large TAVI volumes, while new operators will require training and may benefit from accurate support. In this work, we present a fast deep learning method that can predict aortic annulus perimeter and area automatically from aortic annular plane images. We propose a method combining two deep convolutional neural networks followed by a postprocessing step. The models were trained with 355 patients using modern deep learning techniques, and the method was evaluated on another 118 patients. The method was validated against an interoperator variability study of the same 118 patients. The differences between the manually obtained aortic annulus measurements and the automatic predictions were similar to the differences between two independent observers (paired diff. of 3.3 ± 16.8 mm2 vs. 1.3 ± 21.1 mm2 for the area and a paired diff. of 0.6 ± 1.7 mm vs. 0.2 ± 2.5 mm for the perimeter). The area and perimeter were used to retrieve the suggested prosthesis sizes for the Edwards Sapien 3 and the Medtronic Evolut device retrospectively. The automatically obtained device size selections accorded well with the device sizes selected by operator 1. The total analysis time from aortic annular plane to prosthesis size was below one second. This study showed that automated TAVI device size selection using the proposed method is fast, accurate, and reproducible. Comparison with the interobserver variability has shown the reliability of the strategy, and embedding this tool based on deep learning in the preoperative planning routine has the potential to increase the efficiency while ensuring accuracy.