Bivalirudin vs. Heparin on Radial Artery Thrombosis during Transradial Coronary Intervention: An Optical Coherence Tomography StudyRead the full article
Journal of Interventional Cardiology publishes articles focusing on interventional procedures and techniques in the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease and its associated complications.
Journal of Interventional Cardiology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Safety and Tolerability of Sodium Thiosulfate in Patients with an Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Dose-Escalation Safety Pilot Study (SAFE-ACS)
Background. In animal studies, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been shown to protect the heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. This study evaluates the safety and tolerability of the H2S donor sodium thiosulfate (STS) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods. Eighteen patients, undergoing coronary angiography for ACS, received STS intravenously immediately after arrival at the catheterization laboratory according to a “3 + 3 dose-escalation design” with fixed dosing endpoint (0, 2.5, 5, 10, 12.5, and 15 grams). This first dose STS was combined with verapamil and nitroglycerin required for transradial procedures. A second dose STS was administered 6 hours later. Primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity, defined as significant hemodynamic instability or death up to 24 hours or before discharge from the coronary care unit. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of anaphylaxis, nausea, vomiting, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) course. Results. Sixteen patients received two dosages of STS and two patients one dosage. None of the patients reached the primary endpoint, nor experienced a serious adverse event. We observed a clinically well-tolerated decline in SBP 1 hour after administration of the first STS dose and concomitant verapamil/nitroglycerin. SBP for all patients together reduced 16.8 (8.1–25.5) mmHg (). No significant decline in SBP occurred after the second dose. Mild nausea was observed in one patient. Conclusion. This is the first report on sodium thiosulfate administration in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Our data suggest that sodium thiosulfate was well tolerated in this setting. The potential benefit of this intervention has to be examined in larger studies.
Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Predicting Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Coronary Angiography: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Objective. To assess the diagnostic value of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) or N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing coronary angiography. Background. ACS remains a major cause of death worldwide. Patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography are more likely to develop CI-AKI, which correlates highly with poor clinical outcomes. Early diagnosis of CI-AKI remains a challenge. Many recent studies have suggested that BNP or NT-proBNP may be a useful biomarker for the early diagnosis of CI-AKI. Methods. We searched databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library) to identify eligible studies. Two authors independently screened the studies and extracted data. We used the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) criteria to assess the methodological quality of the included studies and STATA to perform all statistical analyses. Results. Nine studies including 2832 patients were identified. The pooled sensitivity of 0.73 (95% CI 0.65–0.79), specificity of 0.79 (95% CI 0.70–0.85), and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% CI 0.77–0.84) suggested that BNP or NT-proBNP had a good diagnostic value for CI-AKI in patients with ACS undergoing coronary angiography. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that BNP or NT-proBNP may be an effective predictive marker for CI-AKI. However, additional high-quality studies are required to find the optimal cutoff value and the diagnostic value of BNP or NT-proBNP in combination with other biomarkers.
A Comparative Analysis between Ultrasound-Guided and Conventional Distal Transradial Access for Coronary Angiography and Intervention
Objectives. To compare feasibility and safety between ultrasound-guided and conventional distal transradial access (dTRA). Background. Distal transradial access, a new technique for coronary angiography (CAG) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI), is safe and feasible and will become popular worldwide. Ultrasound-guided dTRA has been advocated to reduce failure rate and access-site complications. However, to date, the comparison of feasibility and safety between ultrasound-guided and conventional dTRA has not been reported. Method. Overall, 137 patients (144 procedures) who underwent CAG or PCI using dTRA between September 2018 and February 2019 were investigated. These patients were classified into two groups: C (dTRA with conventional punctures; 76 patients, 79 procedures) and U (dTRA with ultrasound-guided punctures; 61 patients, 65 procedures) groups. Successful procedural rate, procedural outcomes, and complication rate during hospital stays were compared between the two groups. Results. The procedural success rate was significantly higher in the U group than in the C group (97% vs. 87%, ). However, the rate of PCI, puncture time, total fluoroscopy time, the volume of contrast medium, the rate of access-site ecchymosis, and incidence of nerve disorder were similar between the two groups. Additionally, radial artery occlusion after the procedure did not occur in this study. Conclusion. The ultrasound-guided dTRA for CAG or PCI was associated with a lower failure rate than conventional dTRA. However, there were no significant differences in puncture time and complication rate between the two procedures.
Microtransesophageal Echocardiographic Guidance during Percutaneous Interatrial Septal Closure without General Anaesthesia
Objective. To study the safety and efficacy of microtransesophageal echocardiography (micro-TEE) and TEE during percutaneous atrial septal defect (ASD) and patent foramen ovale (PFO) closure. Background. TEE has proven to be safe during ASD and PFO closure under general anaesthesia. Micro-TEE makes it possible to perform these procedures under local anaesthesia. We are the first to describe the safety and efficacy of micro-TEE for percutaneous closure. Methods. All consecutive patients who underwent ASD and PFO closure between 2013 and 2018 were included. The periprocedural complications were registered. Residual shunts were diagnosed using transthoracic contrast echocardiography (TTCE). All data were compared between the use of TEE or micro-TEE within the ASD and PFO groups separately. Results. In total, 82 patients underwent ASD closure, 46 patients (49.1 ± 15.0 years) with TEE and 36 patients (47.8 ± 12.1 years) using micro-TEE guidance. Median device diameter was, respectively, 26 mm (range 10–40 mm) and 27 mm (range 10–35 mm). PFO closure was performed in 120 patients, 55 patients (48.6 ± 9.2 years, median device diameter 25 mm, range 23–35 mm) with TEE and 65 patients (mean age 51.0 ± 11.8 years, median device diameter 27 mm, range 23–35 mm) using micro-TEE. There were no major periprocedural complications, especially no device embolizations within all groups. Six months after closure, there was no significant difference in left-to-right shunt after ASD closure and no significant difference in right-to-left shunt after PFO closure using TEE or micro-TEE. Conclusion. Micro-TEE guidance without general anaesthesia during percutaneous ASD and PFO closure is as safe as TEE, without a significant difference in the residual shunt rate after closure.
Efficacy and Safety of Nicorandil in Preventing Contrast-Induced Nephropathy after Elective Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Pooled Analysis of 1229 Patients
Background. Nicorandil in reducing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) following elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is an inconsistent practice. This article aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of nicorandil in preventing CIN after elective PCI. Methods. This is a pooled analysis of patients treated with elective PCI. The primary outcome was the incidence of CIN. The secondary outcomes were major adverse events, including mortality, heart failure, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal replacement therapy. Results. A total of 1229 patients were recruited in our study. With statistical significance, nicorandil lowered the risk of CIN (odds ratio = 0.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.16–0.44; ; I2 = 0%) in patients who underwent elective PCI. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the incidence of mortality, heart failure, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, and renal replacement therapy between the two groups (). Conclusions. Our article indicated that nicorandil could prevent CIN without increasing the major adverse events. Furthermore, sufficiently powered and randomized clinical studies are still needed in order to determine the role of nicorandil in preventing CIN after elective PCI.
Temporal Trends in X-Ray Exposure during Coronary Angiography and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Background. Percutaneous coronary intervention exposes patient and staff to ionizing radiation. Although staff only receive a small fraction of patient dose through scatter radiation, there are concerns about the potential health effects of repeated exposure. Minimizing both patient and occupational exposure is needed. Objective. This article investigates patient and operator X-ray exposure over time in coronary intervention in relation to upgraded X-ray equipment, improved shielding, and enhanced operator awareness. Materials and Methods. Data regarding irradiation time, patient dose, and patient characteristics were extracted from the Norwegian Registry for Invasive Cardiology (NORIC) for procedures performed from 2013 to mid-2019. Personal operator dosimetry records were provided by the Norwegian Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority. Improved operator shielding and awareness measures were introduced in 2018. Results. In the period 2013 through June 2019, 21499 procedures were recorded in our institution. Mean dose area product (DAP) for coronary angiography decreased 37% from 2981 μGy·m2 in 2013 to 1891 μGy·m2 in 2019 (). For coronary intervention, DAP decreased 39% from 8358 μGy·m2 to 5055 μGy·m2. Personal dosimetry data indicate a 70% reduction in operator dose per procedure in 2019 compared to 2013. The most pronounced reduction occurred after improved radiation protection measures were implemented in 2018 (−48%). Conclusions. This study shows a temporal trend towards considerable reduction in X-ray doses received by the patient and operator during cardiac catheterization. Upgraded X-ray equipment, improved shielding, and enhanced operator awareness are likely contributors to this development.