Outcomes of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Image-Guided Left Ventricular Lead Placement at the Site of Latest Mechanical Activation: A Systematic Review and Meta-AnalysisRead the full article
Journal of Interventional Cardiology publishes articles focusing on interventional procedures and techniques in the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease and its associated complications.
Chief Editor, Dr Patrizia Presbitero, is based at IRCCS Humanitas, Italy. Her main research interests include congenital heart disease and cardiocascular diseases in women.
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The Cobra Catheter: A Novel Concept and Device for the Thru-Septal Myocardium Approach
Objectives. In our previous study, we suggested the novel septal traversing technique as effective and safe in catheter-based approach for septal myocardium. However, it is limited by its dependence on the septal perforator vein. This study aimed to evaluate the Cobra catheter as a backup catheter to overcome this limitation in swine. Methods. We designed the guiding Cobra catheter. It consisted of three major parts (the external pull-wire steerable distal tip, the C-shaped shaft, and the steering adjustment handle). We tested the difference in force between the guidewire passing through the muscle and the vessel wall using a push-pull gauge. We performed a septal wire engage procedure in swine using the Cobra catheter. The guidewire engagement of the septal vein and Cobra catheter were compared visually and histopathologically. Results. A total of ten swine were enrolled in this study. The success rate was 100% under fluoroscopy. The experiments confirmed the medical potential of the septal approach even in a location irrelevant to the septal perforator vein anatomy and confirmed that the wire passed well in the target direction in the harvested heart. There was no serious physical damage or pathological abnormalities in the vessel wall and myocardium. Conclusion. These results showed that the novel Cobra catheter with a septal vein-independent trans-septal approach may be a safe and effective alternative for the treatment of structural heart diseases.
Balloon Fracturing Valve-in-Valve: How to Do It and a Case Report of TAVR in a Rapid Deployment Prosthesis
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) to treat degeneration of bioprosthetic heart valves (BHVs), called as valve-in-valve (ViV), is becoming a key feature since the number of BHVs requiring intervention is increasing and many patients are at high risk for a redo cardiac surgery. However, a TAVR inside a small previous cardiac valve may lead to prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) and not be as effective as we hoped for. An effective option to decrease the chance of PPM is to fracture the previous heart valve implanted using a high-pressure balloon. By performing a valve fracture, the inner valve ring of small BHVs can be opened up by a single fracture line, allowing subsequent implantation of a properly sized transcatheter heart valve, without increasing substantially the procedure risk. In this article, we provide a step-by-step procedure on how to safely and properly fracture a BHV and report a case of a TAVR in a degenerated rapid deployment valve.
Automated MSCT Analysis for Planning Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Using Artificial Intelligence
Background. The number of multislice computed tomography (MSCT) analyses performed for planning structural heart interventions is rapidly increasing. Further automation is required to save time, increase standardization, and reduce the learning curve. Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a fully automated artificial intelligence (AI)-based MSCT analysis for planning structural heart interventions, focusing on left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) as the selected use case. Methods. Different deep learning models were trained, validated, and tested using a cohort of 583 patients for which manually annotated data were available. These models were used independently or in combination to detect the anatomical ostium, the landing zone, the mitral valve annulus, and the fossa ovalis and to segment the left atrium (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA). The accuracy of the models was evaluated through comparison with the manually annotated data. Results. The automated analysis was performed on 25 randomly selected patients of the test cohort. The results were compared to the manually identified landmarks. The predicted segmentation of the LA(A) was similar to the manual segmentation (dice score of 0.94 ± 0.02). The difference between the automatically predicted and manually measured perimeter-based diameter was −0.8 ± 1.3 mm (anatomical ostium), −1.0 ± 1.5 mm (Amulet landing zone), and −0.1 ± 1.3 mm (Watchman FLX landing zone), which is similar to the operator variability on these measurements. Finally, the detected mitral valve annulus and fossa ovalis were close to the manual detection of these landmarks, as shown by the Hausdorff distance (3.9 ± 1.2 mm and 4.8 ± 1.8 mm, respectively). The average runtime of the complete workflow, including data pre- and postprocessing, was 57.5 ± 34.5 seconds. Conclusions. A fast and accurate AI-based workflow is proposed to automatically analyze MSCT images for planning LAAO. The approach, which can be easily extended toward other structural heart interventions, may help to handle the rapidly increasing volumes of patients.
Artificial Intelligence Enabled Fully Automated CMR Function Quantification for Optimized Risk Stratification in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement
Background. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is considered the reference standard for assessing cardiac morphology and function and has demonstrated prognostic utility in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Novel fully automated analyses may facilitate data analyses but have not yet been compared against conventional manual data acquisition in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS). Methods. Fully automated and manual biventricular assessments were performed in 139 AS patients scheduled for TAVR using commercially available software (suiteHEART®, Neosoft; QMass®, Medis Medical Imaging Systems). Volumetric assessment included left ventricular (LV) mass, LV/right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic/end-systolic volume, LV/RV stroke volume, and LV/RV ejection fraction (EF). Results of fully automated and manual analyses were compared. Regression analyses and receiver operator characteristics including area under the curve (AUC) calculation for prediction of the primary study endpoint cardiovascular (CV) death were performed. Results. Fully automated and manual assessment of LVEF revealed similar prediction of CV mortality in univariable (manual: hazard ratio (HR) 0.970 (95% CI 0.943–0.997) ; automated: HR 0.967 (95% CI 0.939–0.995) ) and multivariable analyses (model 1: (including significant univariable parameters) manual: HR 0.968 (95% CI 0.938–0.999) ; automated: HR 0.963 [95% CI 0.933–0.995] ; model 2: (including CV risk factors) manual: HR 0.962 (95% CI 0.920–0.996) ; automated: HR 0.954 (95% CI 0.920–0.989) ). There were no differences in AUC (LVEF fully automated: 0.686; manual: 0.661; ). Absolute values of LV volumes differed significantly between automated and manual approaches ( for all). Fully automated quantification resulted in a time saving of 10 minutes per patient. Conclusion. Fully automated biventricular volumetric assessments enable efficient and equal risk prediction compared to conventional manual approaches. In addition to significant time saving, this may provide the tools for optimized clinical management and stratification of patients with severe AS undergoing TAVR.
Predictive Value of Soluble Growth Stimulator Gene 2 Protein for Coronary Slow Flow/No-Reflow in ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients Receiving Percutaneous Coronary Intervention
Background. Soluble growth stimulator gene 2 protein (sST2) is associated with heart failure and myocardial infarction; however, the predictive value of plasma sST2 level for coronary slow flow/no-reflow (CSF/NRF) is unclear. This study aimed to explore the predictive value of plasma sST2 levels for CSF/NRF in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who underwent emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods. A total of 242 STEMI patients who underwent emergency PCI at our hospital between November 2020 and July 2021 were enrolled in this study. According to the postprocedural procedure, these patients were divided into the CSF/NRF and control groups. Clinical data were collected from both groups and were used to explore the predictive value of serum sST2 levels for CSF/NRF. Results. Of the total 242 patients, CSF/NRF was observed in 50 patients (20.7%). Statistically significant differences () were observed in age, diabetes mellitus, sST2 level, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), fasting blood sugar, preprocedural blood pressure, intraprocedural hypotension, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), and cardiac troponin I (cTNI). Multivariate analysis showed that the sST2 level, NLR, and intraoperative hypotension were independent risk factors for CSF/NRF. ROC curve analysis showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the sST2 level for predicting CSF/NRF were 68.0% and 75.5%, respectively, when the sST2 level was more than 64.6 ng/mL (AUC = 0.780, 95% CI: 1.003–1.020, ). Conclusion. For STEMI patients, preprocedural sST2 levels significantly correlated with CSF/NRF occurring in PCI. sST2 level is a potential predictor for CSF/NRF occurrence.
Outcomes of Left Main Revascularization after Percutaneous Intervention or Bypass Surgery
Background. This study is aimed at comparing the clinical outcomes of unprotected left main coronary artery disease (ULMCAD) treatment with contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in a “real-world” population. Methods and Results. Overall, 558 consecutive patients with ULMCAD (mean age 71 ± 9 years, male gender 81%) undergoing PCI or CABG were compared. The primary endpoint was the composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or stroke. Diabetes was present in 29% and acute coronary syndrome in 56%; mean EuroSCORE was 11 ± 8. High coronary complexity (SYNTAX score >32) was present in 50% of patients. The primary composite endpoint was similar after PCI and CABG up to 4 years (15.5 ± 3.1% vs. 17.1 ± 2.6%; ). The primary end point was also comparable in a two propensity score matched cohorts. Ischemia-driven revascularization was more frequently needed in PCI than in CABG (5.5% vs. 1.5%; ). By multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (HR 2.00; ) and EuroSCORE (HR 3.71; ) were the only independent predictors associated with long-term outcome. Conclusions. In a “real-world” population with ULMCAD, a contemporary revascularization strategy by PCI or CABG showed similar long-term clinical outcome regardless of the coronary complexity.