Inflation Pressure in Side Branch during Modified Jailed Balloon Technique Does Not Affect Side Branch OutcomesRead the full article
Journal of Interventional Cardiology publishes articles focusing on interventional procedures and techniques in the diagnosis, investigation, and management of patients with cardiovascular disease and its associated complications.
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A Novel Approach for Transcatheter Management of Perimembranous Ventricular Septal Defect with a Subaortic Ridge
Introduction. Surgical closure of the perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PM VSD) and resection of the subaortic ridge are the standard methods of management, but there is no definitive agreement regarding the timing of surgery. Objectives. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the management of patients with PM VSD and subaortic ridge with or without AR via transcatheter closure of the defect and compressing the ridge against the ventricular septum using Amplatzer ductal occluder type I (ADO-I). Patients and Methods. We introduced a new approach for transcatheter management of PM VSD and subaortic ridge by closing the VSD and capturing or compressing the ridge against the interventricular septum (IVS) using the ADO-I device. Thirty-eight (9.5%) of 398 patients with a PM VSD were found to have subaortic ridge and were enrolled in this study from August 1, 2014, to February 1, 2018, at the Ibn Albitar Center for Cardiac Surgery, Baghdad, Iraq. Results. The ages and weights of patients ranged from 1.5 to 25 years and 7 to 73 kg, respectively. The male-to-female ratio was 2.2 : 1. The VSD sizes ranged from 4 to 8 mm, and the median distance of the ridge from the proximal edge of the VSD was 2.5 mm. Prior to closure, 13 patients (34.2%) had mild and mild-to-moderate aortic regurgitation (AR), and nine patients (23.7%) had mild-to-moderate left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. The mean AR pressure half-time increased significantly after intervention (from 385 ± 38 ms to 535 ± 69 ms (significant value, 0.001)), and the mean of the peak pressure gradient across the LVOT decreased from 33 ± 7 mmHg to 15 ± 2.4 mmHg (significant value, 0.001). Successful procedures were achieved in 33 patients (86.8%). Conclusion. Transcatheter management of patients with PM VSD and subaortic ridges with or without AR is feasible and effective.
Computer Simulation of Platelet Adhesion around Stent Struts in the Presence and Absence of Tissue Defects around Them
Aim. To predict platelet accumulation around stent struts in the presence or absence of tissue defects around them. Methods. Computer simulations were performed using virtual platelets implementing the function of the three membrane proteins: glycoprotein (GP) Ibα, GPIIb/IIIa, and GPVI. These platelets were perfused around the stent struts implanted into the vessel wall in the presence or absence of tissue defects around them using within the simulation platform. The number of platelets that adhered around stent struts was calculated by solving the blood flow using Navier–Stokes equation along with the adhesion of membrane protein modeled within the platform. Results. Platelet accumulation around stent struts occurred mostly at the downstream region of the stent strut array. The majority of platelets adhered at the downstream of the first bend regardless of the tissue defect status. Platelet adhesion around stent struts occurred more rapidly in the presence of tissue defects. Conclusion. Computer simulation using virtual platelets suggested a higher rate of platelet adhesion in the presence of tissue defects around stent struts.
High-Dose Atorvastatin Raises Threshold of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Diabetic Patients Undergoing Elective Coronary Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Study
Background. Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a significant complication of angiographic procedures resulting from injection of iodinated contrast media (CM). Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at the highest risk of CIN. Statins have recently been proposed for protection against CIN due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Aim of Work. To investigate the potential benefit of acute pretreatment with high-dose atorvastatin (80 mg) in reduction of the incidence of CIN in diabetic patients indicated for elective coronary intervention. Patients and Methods. 200 diabetic patients with indication for coronary intervention were enrolled in the study. 100 patients will be randomly assigned to receive atorvastatin (80 mg) just before coronary intervention (statin group) and 100 patients received placebo (control group). CIN was defined as a rise of serum creatinine of more than 25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl (44 μmol/l) from baseline within 48 hours of the angiography. After the procedure, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow of the culprit vessel was reported, as well as the volume of used contrast media and time of X-ray exposure. Results. Our study reported a CIN incidence of 12, 18, and 6% among the whole study, placebo, and statin groups, respectively, value of 0.001. Among the placebo group, CIN is likely to develop after a 13.5-minute X-ray exposure time with a specificity of 73.2% and sensitivity of 77.8%, area under the curve (AUC) of 0.879 (CI: 0.798–0.960), and value of 0.001, while in the statin group, CIN is likely to develop after 14.5-minute X-ray exposure time with a specificity of 74.5% and sensitivity of 83.3%, AUC of 0.818 (CI: 0.727–0.910), and P value of 0.009. In the placebo group, CIN is likely to develop after injection of 145 ml of contrast media with a specificity of 75.6% and sensitivity of 77.8%, AUC of 0.855 (CI: 0.757–0.952), and value of 0.001, while in the statin group, CIN is likely to develop after injection of 165 ml of contrast media with a specificity of 84% and sensitivity of 83.3%, AUC of 0.878 (CI: 0.811–0.944), and value of 0.002. Conclusions. Acute pretreatment with high-dose atorvastatin can effectively protect against CIN and was associated with a marked decrease in the prevalence of CIN in diabetic patients undergoing coronary interventions. Moreover, pretreatment with high-dose atorvastatin raises the threshold of X-ray exposure time and the amount of contrast media beyond which CIN is likely to develop. The trial is registered with NCT04375787.
Physiology-Based Revascularization of Left Main Coronary Artery Disease
It is of critical importance to correctly assess the significance of a left main lesion. Underestimation of significance beholds the risk of inappropriate deferral of revascularization, whereas overestimation may trigger major but unnecessary interventions. This article addresses the invasive physiological assessment of left main disease and its role in deciding upon revascularization. It mainly focuses on the available evidence for fractional flow reserve and instantaneous wave-free ratio, their interpretation, and limitations. We also discuss alternative invasive physiological indices and imaging, as well as the link between physiology, ischemia, and prognosis.
Trans-Septal Myocardial Biopsy in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Using the Liwen Procedure: An Introduction of a Novel Technique
Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of myocardial biopsy using a new approach, the Liwen procedure. Background. Myocardial biopsy is essential when other methods could not differentiate other etiologies from hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). Our previous work using intramyocardial radiofrequency ablation for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (Liwen procedure) may provide another approach to obtain the myocardial samples. Method. Seventeen patients with HOCM were enrolled for biopsies through percutaneously accessed intramyocardial septum and evaluated possible complications. Results. We obtained 31 specimens from 17 patients with a success rate of sample acquisition 100.0%. The number of myocardial samples taken per patient was 1.8 ± 0.8, and the average length of all samples was 16.7 ± 5.6 mm which could be used for pathological diagnosis. The complications included pericardial effusion with and without tamponade in one patient (5.9%), and no incidence of nonsustained and sustained ventricular tachycardia, conduction abnormity, perforation, stroke, and pneumothorax. The inhospital and 30-day mortality was 0%. Conclusion. This study has shown that myocardial biopsy of the Liwen procedure is relatively safe and technically feasible with adequate tissue sampling, which may help pathological diagnosis and further research of HOCM of diverse etiologies. This trial is registered with NCT04355260.
Revascularization of Coronary Artery Chronic Total Occlusion by Active Antegrade Reverse Wire Technique
Objectives. To assess the effectiveness and safety of ARW for vascular recanalization in CTO patients. Background. Chronic total occlusion (CTO) of coronary artery accompanied with large branch distal to the occluded segment (<2 mm) is one of the challenges physicians are facing during the coronary intervention. In cases where the antegrade wire passed the occluded segment reaching the branch vessel, but could not access the main vessel through various adjustments, application of active antegrade reverse wire technique (ARW) could be considered. Patients and Methods. A total of 301 consecutive CTO patients who received the antegrade percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between December 2015 and December 2019 at our institution were included, of whom 11 were treated with ARW (10 successfully) for vascular recanalization. The applicability and safety of ARW were assessed. Results. Among the 301 CTO patients who received antegrade vascular recanalization, 11 were treated with ARW. ARW was successful in 10 patients as follows: from the diagonal branch (D) to anterior descending branch (LAD) in 4 patients; from the septal branch (S) to LAD in 1 patient; from D to S and LAD in 1 patient; from the circumflex branch (LCX) to obtuse marginal branch (OM) in 1 patient; from OM to LCX in 1 patient; from a posterior descending artery (PDA) to the posterior lateral vein (PLV) in 2 patients. Yet, ARW in patient with RCAm CTO failed, while the consequent retrograde PCI succeeded. The mean J-CTO score of the 11 patients was 2.7 ± 0.65, among whom eight were accompanied with calcifications. Sion Black and Fielder XTR reverse wires were used in 9 and 2 patients, respectively. No loss of side branches or severe procedure-related complications occurred in 11 patients. Conclusion. Therefore, ARW can improve procedural efficiency and should be popularized for further application.