Figure 1: Lipid and lipoprotein pathways in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. NAFLD is considered to be liver manifestation of obesity and metabolic syndrome. In response to insulin and glucose, transcription factors SREBPs and ChREBP are activated and induce the expression of genes involved in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol in the liver. Enhanced lipogenesis leads to enhanced VLDL production, a major metabolic perturbation in NAFLD. Increased VLDL secretion in plasma results in increase in LDL through CETP-mediated exchange of cholesteryl esters and triglycerides between LDL and VLDL, followed by triglyceride removal from LDL by hepatic lipase (HL). Liver removes LDL from circulation by LDLR-mediated endocytosis. Oxidized LDL and FFA are transported to the liver by CD-36, FA translocase, and scavenger receptor. Italics: metabolic genes, black lines: metabolic pathways, black dash lines: coming out or in the liver, white lines: transcriptional regulation, *process in the mitochondria.