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Journal of Lipids
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 352857, 9 pages
Research Article

Paraoxonases-2 and -3 Are Important Defense Enzymes against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence Factors due to Their Anti-Oxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Properties

1Institute of Pharmacology, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Obere Zahlbacher Straße 67, 55131 Mainz, Germany
2Division of Epidemiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390, USA

Received 2 December 2011; Accepted 1 February 2012

Academic Editor: Alejandro Gugliucci

Copyright © 2012 Eva-Maria Schweikert et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes serious damage in immunocompromised patients by secretion of various virulence factors, among them the quorum sensing N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-L-homoserine lactone (3OC12) and the redox-active pyocyanin (PCN). Paraoxonase-2 (PON2) may protect against P. aeruginosa infections, as it efficiently inactivates 3OC12 and diminishes PCN-induced oxidative stress. This defense could be circumvented because 3OC12 mediates intracellular Ca2+-rise in host cells, which causes rapid inactivation and degradation of PON2. Importantly, we recently found that the PON2 paralogue PON3 prevents mitochondrial radical formation. Here we investigated its role as additional potential defense mechanism against P. aeruginosa infections. Our studies demonstrate that PON3 diminished PCN-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, it showed clear anti-inflammatory potential by protecting against NF-κB activation and IL-8 release. The latter similarly applied to PON2. Furthermore, we observed a Ca2+-mediated inactivation and degradation of PON3, again in accordance with previous findings for PON2. Our results suggest that the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory functions of PON2 and PON3 are an important part of our innate defense system against P. aeruginosa infections. Furthermore, we conclude that P. aeruginosa circumvents PON3 protection by the same pathway as for PON2. This may help identifying underlying mechanisms in order to sustain the protection afforded by these enzymes.