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Journal of Lipids
Volume 2012, Article ID 684010, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/684010
Review Article

Regulation of Hepatic Paraoxonase-1 Expression

The Lipid Research Laboratory, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology and Rambam Medical Center, 31096 Haifa, Israel

Received 24 December 2011; Accepted 29 January 2012

Academic Editor: Alejandro Gugliucci

Copyright © 2012 Bianca Fuhrman. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is a member of the paraoxonases family (PON1, PON2, and PON3). PON1 is synthesized and secreted by the liver, and in circulation it is associated with HDL. PON1 has antioxidative properties, which are associated with the enzyme’s capability to decrease oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions and to attenuate atherosclerosis development. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that low PON1 activity is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events and cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Therefore, pharmacological modulation of PON1 activity or PON1 gene expression could constitute a useful approach for preventing atherosclerosis. A primary determinant of serum PON1 levels is the availability of the enzyme for release by the liver, the principal site of PON1 production. Together with the enzyme secretion rate, enzymatic turnover, and protein stability, the level of PON1 gene expression is a major determinant of PON1 status. This paper summarizes recent progress in understanding the regulation of PON1 expression in hepatocytes.