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Journal of Lipids
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 246597, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/246597
Review Article

PPARγ Networks in Cell Signaling: Update and Impact of Cyclic Phosphatidic Acid

Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621, Japan

Received 24 November 2012; Revised 2 January 2013; Accepted 2 January 2013

Academic Editor: Robert Salomon

Copyright © 2013 Tamotsu Tsukahara. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Lysophospholipid (LPL) has long been recognized as a membrane phospholipid metabolite. Recently, however, the LPL has emerged as a candidate for diagnostic and pharmacological interest. LPLs include lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), alkyl glycerol phosphate (AGP), cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). These biologically active lipid mediators serve to promote a variety of responses that include cell proliferation, migration, and survival. These LPL-related responses are mediated by cell surface G-protein-coupled receptors and also intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). In this paper, we focus mainly on the most recent findings regarding the biological function of nuclear receptor-mediated lysophospholipid signaling in mammalian systems, specifically as they relate to health and diseases. Also, we will briefly review the biology of PPARγ and then provide an update of lysophospholipids PPARγ ligands that are under investigation as a therapeutic compound and which are targets of PPARγ relevant to diseases.