Table 2: Effect of bitter melon extracts on lipid parameters of diabetic and obese animal models.

ModelDoseExperimental outcomeReference

Cholesterol fed rats0.5, 1 and 3% of diet(i) Not changed TC level, but
(ii) increased HDL-C level in plasma.
[66]

STZ-induced diabetic rats10 mL 100% fruit extract per kg body weight daily for 10 weeks(i) Decreased elevated level of plasma cholesterol, TGs and phospholipids in STZ induced diabetic rats.[67]

Diabetic rats(i) Decreased in TG and LDL,
(ii) Increased in HDL.
[68]

Rats fed a HF diet7.5 g/kg or 0.75%(i) Supplementation did not affect serum and hepatic cholesterol.
(ii) Supplementation in HF diet rats led to a lowering of hepatic TAG and steatosis score in liver section.
(iii) Plasma epinephrine and serum FFA concentrations were increased.
(iv) Lowered TAG concentration in red gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior.
[58]

Wistar ratsSaponin fraction (50–100 mg/kg body weight)(i) Decreased pancreatic lipase activity and serum TG level in corn oil loaded rats.[69]

Female C57BL/6 mice fed with HF diet1.5% freeze-dried BMJ with diet(i) Normalized plasma TAG, cholesterol, and NEFA.
(ii) Normalized AST, ALT, and ALP in plasma.
(iii) Decreased ApoB secretion and modulated the phosphorylation status of IR and its downstream signalling molecules.
[70]

Albino rats fed with sucrose40, 80, and 120 mg/kg of body weight(i) Reduced TG and LDL levels and increased HDL levels.
(ii) Normalized hyperglycemia.
(iii) Lowered TBARS and normalized levels of reduced glutathione.
[71]

Offspring rats fed high (60%) fructose diet1% of diet (i) Decreased plasma level of TG, cholesterol, and FFA.
(ii) Lowered the hepatic levels of stearoyl-CoA desaturase and microsomal TG transfer protein mRNA.
(iii) Increased PPARγ coactivator 1-α and fibroblast growth factor 21 mRNA and fatty acid binding protein 1.
[72]

Female Zucker rats3.0% (wt = wt) ground BMS(i) Supplementation increased the expression of PPAR-γ in the WAT.
(ii) Decreased TC and LDL-C; increased HDL-C.
(iii) Downregulated the expression of PPAR-γ, nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB), and interferon-γ mRNA in heart tissue.
[73]

HF diet fed mice1.2% plant extract(i) Decreased TC, TGs, and LDL-C.
(ii) Increased hepatic AMPK p, AMPK α1 AMPK α2, and Sirt1 content.
(iii) FGF21 and insulin concentrations were significantly decreased.
(iv) Hepatic FGF21 content was significantly downregulated, while FGF receptors 1, 3, and 4 (FGFR1, FGFR3, and FGFR4) were greatly upregulated.
[74]

Wistar rats fed high cholesterol diet(i) Decreased serum TC and LDL-C HDL-C.
(ii) Decreased mRNA levels of hepatic LXRα in rats.
(iii) Increased the hepatic CYP7A1 mRNA level.
[75]

C57BL/6J mice 45% HF diet0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/kg/day extracts(i) Decreased serum TC and fatty acids.
(ii) Normalized leptin and insulin concentration.
(iii) Increased PPARα level in liver.
(iv) Increased GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscle.
(v) Significantly increased the hepatic protein contents of AMPK phosphorylation and decreased expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK).
[76]