Journal of Lipids The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Industrial Trans Fatty Acid and Serum Cholesterol: The Allowable Dietary Level Wed, 30 Aug 2017 09:20:08 +0000 Trans fatty acid (TFA) from partially hydrogenated oil is regarded as the worst dietary fatty acid per gram due to its role in coronary heart disease. TFA consumption is decreasing worldwide, but some but not all observational studies indicate that TFA intake has little relevance to serum cholesterol levels in populations with low TFA intake (<1% E [percentage of total energy intake], <approximately 2 g/day). Few intervention trials examined the effect of TFAs on blood cholesterol at relatively low levels (<2% E); no definite evidence is available on the tolerable upper level of the intake. A series of our intervention studies in Japanese suggested that an industrial TFA intake at <1% E does not influence the serum cholesterol level. To establish allowable level, we must consider not only the dietary level of TFAs, but also the composition of dietary fats simultaneously consumed, that is, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids strengthen or counteract the adverse effect of TFAs on serum cholesterol levels. In this review we describe the complex situation of the cardiovascular effects of industrial TFAs. The relationship between dietary industrial TFAs and concentration of plasma cholesterol should be evaluated from the viewpoint of dietary patterns rather than TFAs alone.  Hiroyuki Takeuchi and Michihiro Sugano Copyright © 2017 Hiroyuki Takeuchi and Michihiro Sugano. All rights reserved. Do Omega-3/6 Fatty Acids Have a Therapeutic Role in Children and Young People with ADHD? Wed, 30 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a debilitating behavioural disorder affecting daily ability to function, learn, and interact with peers. This publication assesses the role of omega-3/6 fatty acids in the treatment and management of ADHD. Methods. A systematic review of 16 randomised controlled trials was undertaken. Trials included a total of 1,514 children and young people with ADHD who were allocated to take an omega-3/6 intervention, or a placebo. Results. Of the studies identified, 13 reported favourable benefits on ADHD symptoms including improvements in hyperactivity, impulsivity, attention, visual learning, word reading, and working/short-term memory. Four studies used supplements containing a 9 : 3 : 1 ratio of eicosapentaenoic acid : docosahexaenoic acid : gamma linolenic acid which appeared effective at improving erythrocyte levels. Supplementation with this ratio of fatty acids also showed promise as an adjunctive therapy to traditional medications, lowering the dose and improving the compliance with medications such as methylphenidate. Conclusion. ADHD is a frequent and debilitating childhood condition. Given disparaging feelings towards psychostimulant medications, omega-3/6 fatty acids offer great promise as a suitable adjunctive therapy for ADHD. E. Derbyshire Copyright © 2017 E. Derbyshire. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Profiles of Stipe and Blade from the Norwegian Brown Macroalgae Laminaria hyperborea with Special Reference to Acyl Glycerides, Polar Lipids, and Free Fatty Acids Tue, 20 Jun 2017 07:51:09 +0000 A thorough analysis of the fatty acid profiles of stipe and blade from the kelp species Laminaria hyperborea is presented. Lipid extracts were fractionated into neutral lipids, free fatty acids, and polar lipids, prior to derivatization and GC-MS analysis. A total of 42 fatty acids were identified and quantified, including the n-3 fatty acids -linolenic acid, stearidonic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid. The fatty acid amounts are higher in blade than in stipe (7.42 mg/g dry weight and 2.57 mg/g dry weight, resp.). The highest amounts of n-3 fatty acids are found within the neutral lipid fractions with 590.6 ug/g dry weight and 100.9 ug/g dry weight for blade and stipe, respectively. The amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids are 3.4 times higher in blade than stipe. The blade had the highest PUFA/SFA ratio compared to stipe (1.02 versus 0.76) and the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio (0.8 versus 3.5). This study highlights the compositional differences between the lipid fractions of stipe and blade from L. hyperborea. The amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to saturated- and monounsaturated fatty acids is known to influence human health. In the pharmaceutical, food, and feed industries, this can be of importance for production of different health products. Lena Foseid, Hanne Devle, Yngve Stenstrøm, Carl Fredrik Naess-Andresen, and Dag Ekeberg Copyright © 2017 Lena Foseid et al. All rights reserved. Influence on Adiposity and Atherogenic Lipaemia of Fatty Meals and Snacks in Daily Life Mon, 19 Jun 2017 07:20:28 +0000 The present work reviewed the connections of changes in consumption of high-fat food with changes in adiposity and lipaemia in adults with overweight or obesity. Hyperlipaemia from higher fat meals and excessive adiposity contributes to atherogenic process. Low-fat diet interventions decrease body fat, lipaemia, and atherosclerosis markers. Inaccuracy of physical estimates of dietary fat intake remains, however, a limit to establishing causal connections. To fill this gap, tracking fat-rich eating episodes at short intervals quantifies the behavioural frequency suggested to measure (by regression of changes in real time) direct effects of this eating pattern on adiposity and atherogenic lipaemia. Such evidence will provide the basis for an approach focused on a sustained decrease in frequency of fatty meals or snacks to reduce obesity, hyperlipaemia, and atherosclerosis. Antonio Laguna-Camacho Copyright © 2017 Antonio Laguna-Camacho. All rights reserved. Erythrocyte Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Elite Athletes in Response to Omega-3 Supplementation: A Dose-Response Pilot Study Thu, 01 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. Supplementation of Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3FA) in athletes is related to the anti-inflammatory and/or antioxidant effect and consequently its action on all the processes of tissue restoration and adaptation to physical stress. Objective. Evaluate the Omega-3 Index (O3Ix) response, in red blood cells, to supplemental EPA + DHA intake in the form of high purity and stable composition gums (G), in elite summer athletes. Method. Twenty-four summer sport athletes of both sexes, pertaining to the Olympic Training Center in Spain, were randomized to two groups (2G = 760 or 3G = 1140 mg of n-3 FA in Omegafort OKids, Ferrer Intl.) for 4 months. Five athletes and four training staff volunteers were control group. Results. The O3Ix was lower than 8% in 93.1% of all the athletes. The supplementation worked in a dose-dependent manner: 144% for the 3G dose and 135% for the 2G, both , with a 3% significant decrease of Omega-6 FAs. No changes were observed for the control group. Conclusions. Supplementation with n-3FA increases the content of EPA DHA in the red blood cells at 4 months in a dose-dependent manner. Athletes with lower basal O3Ix were more prone to increment their levels. The study is registered with Protocol Registration and Results System ( number NCT02610270. Franchek Drobnic, Félix Rueda, Victoria Pons, Montserrat Banquells, Begoña Cordobilla, and Joan Carles Domingo Copyright © 2017 Franchek Drobnic et al. All rights reserved. Elucidation of the Role of Lectin-Like oxLDL Receptor-1 in the Metabolic Responses of Macrophages to Human oxLDL Wed, 31 May 2017 07:33:53 +0000 Atherogenesis is the narrowing of arteries due to plaque build-up that results in cardiovascular disease that can lead to death. The macrophage lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1), also called the oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (OLR1), is currently thought to aid in atherosclerotic disease progression; therefore metabolic studies have potential to both provide mechanistic validation for the role of LOX-1 in disease progression and provide valuable information regarding biomarker strategies and clinical imaging. One such mechanistic study is the upregulation of LOX-1 by methylated bacterial DNA and deoxy-cytidylate-phosphate-deoxy-guanylate-DNA (CpG)-DNA exposure. CpG-DNA is known to promote oxidative burst responses in macrophages, due to its direct binding to toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) leading to the initiation of an NF-κB mediated immune response. In addition to the upregulation of macrophage LOX-1 expression, these studies have also examined the macrophage metabolic response to murine LOX-1/OLR1 antibody exposure. Our data suggests the antibody exposure effectively blocks LOX-1 dependent oxLDL metabolic activation of the macrophage, which was quantified using the multianalyte microphysiometer (MAMP). Using the MAMP to examine metabolic fluctuations during various types of oxLDL exposure, LOX-1 upregulation and inhibition provide valuable information regarding the role of LOX-1 in macrophage activation of oxidative burst. Danielle W. Kimmel, William P. Dole, and David E. Cliffel Copyright © 2017 Danielle W. Kimmel et al. All rights reserved. Apolipoproteins A-I, B, and C-III and Obesity in Young Adult Cherokee Mon, 03 Apr 2017 10:31:05 +0000 Since young adult Cherokee are at increased risk for both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, we assessed association of apolipoproteins (A-I, B, and C-III in non-HDL and HDL) with obesity and related risk factors. Obese participants (BMI ≥ 30) aged 20–40 years () were studied. Metabolically healthy obese (MHO) individuals were defined as not having any of four components of the ATP-III metabolic syndrome after exclusion of waist circumference, and obese participants not being MHO were defined as metabolically abnormal obese (MAO). Associations were evaluated by correlation and regression modeling. Obesity measures, blood pressure, insulin resistance, lipids, and apolipoproteins were significantly different between groups except for total cholesterol, LDL-C, and HDL-apoC-III. Apolipoproteins were not correlated with obesity measures with the exception of apoA-I with waist and the waist : height ratio. In a logistic regression model apoA-I and the apoB : apoA-I ratio were significantly selected for identifying those being MHO, and the result (-statistic = 0.902) indicated that apoA-I and the apoB : apoA-I ratio can be used to identify a subgroup of obese individuals with a significantly less atherogenic lipid and apolipoprotein profile, particularly in obese Cherokee men in whom MHO is more likely. Wenyu Wang, Piers Blackett, Sohail Khan, and Elisa Lee Copyright © 2017 Wenyu Wang et al. All rights reserved. Normal Non-HDL Cholesterol, Low Total Cholesterol, and HDL Cholesterol Levels in Sickle Cell Disease Patients in the Steady State: A Case-Control Study of Tema Metropolis Sun, 18 Dec 2016 11:21:23 +0000 Background. Abnormal lipid homeostasis in sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by defects in plasma and erythrocyte lipids and may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the lipid profile and non-HDL cholesterol level of SCD patients. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 SCD patients, in the steady state, aged 8–28 years, attending the SCD clinic, and 50 healthy volunteers between the ages of 8–38 years. Serum lipids were determined by enzymatic methods and non-HDL cholesterol calculated by this formula: non-HDL-C = TC-HDL-C. Results. Total cholesterol (TC) () and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) () were significantly decreased in cases compared to controls. The levels of non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglyceride (TG) were similar among the participants. The levels of decrease in TC and HDL were associated with whether a patient was SCD-SS or SCD-SC. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were each significantly associated with increased VLDL [SBP, , OR: 0.74 (CI: 0.6–0.93); DBP, , OR: 1.45 (CI: 1.05–2.0)]. Conclusion. Dyslipidemia is common among participants in this study. It was more pronounced in the SCD-SS than in SCD-SC. This dyslipidemia was associated with high VLDL as well as increased SBP and DBP. Richard K. D. Ephraim, Patrick Adu, Edem Ake, Hope Agbodzakey, Prince Adoba, Obed Cudjoe, and Clement Agoni Copyright © 2016 Richard K. D. Ephraim et al. All rights reserved. Cholesterol Efflux Capacity of Apolipoprotein A-I Varies with the Extent of Differentiation and Foam Cell Formation of THP-1 Cells Wed, 09 Nov 2016 06:36:23 +0000 Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the main protein component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has many protective functions against atherosclerosis, one of them being cholesterol efflux capacity. Although cholesterol efflux capacity measurement is suggested to be a key biomarker for evaluating the risk of development of atherosclerosis, the assay has not been optimized till date. This study aims at investigating the effect of different states of cells on the cholesterol efflux capacity. We also studied the effect of apoA-I modification by homocysteine, a risk factor for atherosclerosis, on cholesterol efflux capacity in different states of cells. The cholesterol efflux capacity of apoA-I was greatly influenced by the extent of differentiation of THP-1 cells and attenuated by excessive foam cell formation. N-Homocysteinylated apoA-I indicated a lower cholesterol efflux capacity than normal apoA-I in the optimized condition, whereas no significant difference was observed in the cholesterol efflux capacity between apoA-I in the excessive cell differentiation or foam cell formation states. These results suggest that cholesterol efflux capacity of apoA-I varies depending on the state of cells. Therefore, the cholesterol efflux assay should be performed using protocols optimized according to the objective of the experiment. Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Naoya Ichimura, Takahiro Kameda, Tetsuo Kubota, and Minoru Tozuka Copyright © 2016 Kouji Yano et al. All rights reserved. High-Density Lipoprotein Binds to Mycobacterium avium and Affects the Infection of THP-1 Macrophages Tue, 19 Jul 2016 13:10:53 +0000 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity. Naoya Ichimura, Megumi Sato, Akira Yoshimoto, Kouji Yano, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Takeshi Kasama, and Minoru Tozuka Copyright © 2016 Naoya Ichimura et al. All rights reserved. 8-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic Acid Decreases Plasma and Hepatic Triglycerides via Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice Thu, 28 Apr 2016 16:13:30 +0000 PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. PPARs serve as molecular sensors of fatty acids, and their activation can act against obesity and metabolic syndromes. 8-Hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acid (8-HEPE) acts as a PPAR ligand and has higher activity than EPA. However, to date, the PPAR ligand activity of 8-HEPE has only been demonstrated in vitro. Here, we investigated its ligand activity in vivo by examining the effect of 8-HEPE treatment on high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. After the 4-week treatment period, the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in the 8-HEPE-fed mice were significantly lower than those in the HFD-fed mice. The expression of genes regulated by PPARα was significantly increased in 8-HEPE-fed mice compared to those that received only HFD. Additionally, the level of hepatic palmitic acid in 8-HEPE-fed mice was significantly lower than in HFD-fed mice. These results suggested that intake of 8-HEPE induced PPARα activation and increased catabolism of lipids in the liver. We found no significant differences between EPA-fed mice and HFD-fed mice. We demonstrated that 8-HEPE has a larger positive effect on metabolic syndrome than EPA and that 8-HEPE acts by inducing PPARα activation in the liver. Hidetoshi Yamada, Sayaka Kikuchi, Mayuka Hakozaki, Kaori Motodate, Nozomi Nagahora, and Masamichi Hirose Copyright © 2016 Hidetoshi Yamada et al. All rights reserved. Changes in Sediment Fatty Acid Composition during Passage through the Gut of Deposit Feeding Holothurians: Holothuria atra (Jaeger, 1883) and Holothuria leucospilota (Brandt, 1835) Wed, 02 Mar 2016 12:52:18 +0000 Sea cucumbers Holothuria atra and Holothuria leucospilota play an important role in the bioturbation of sediment in coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. This study investigated changes in sediment fatty acid (FA) composition during gut passage in H. atra and H. leucospilota. The FA composition did not differ significantly between species. Comparison of FA composition in ambient sediment (AS), foregut (FG), midgut (MG), hindgut (HG), and faecal pellets (FPs) indicated that marked changes in FA composition occurred during passage through the gut of H. atra and H. leucospilota. Saturated fatty acids (SAFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), and branched fatty acids (BrFAs) were significantly higher in FG than in AS, suggesting that both species selectively ingested nutrient rich particles. Significant reduction of SAFAs, MUFAs, PUFAs, and BrFAs occurred in MD and HD, with complete elimination of most PUFAs in FPs. A decrease in PUFAs 20:5ω3, 18:4ω3, 22:5ω3, 22:6ω3, 18:2ω6, 18:3ω3, 18:3ω6, odd-numbered BrFAs, and MUFA 18:1ω7 indicated that algal detritus and bacteria were important part of diet. These results have implications for the fate of specific dietary FAs, especially ω3 and ω6, and the contribution holothurian FPs make to the FA composition of coral reef and rocky intertidal ecosystems. Prosper L. Mfilinge and Makoto Tsuchiya Copyright © 2016 Prosper L. Mfilinge and Makoto Tsuchiya. All rights reserved. Serum Fatty Acids, Traditional Risk Factors, and Comorbidity as Related to Myocardial Injury in an Elderly Population with Acute Myocardial Infarction Thu, 18 Feb 2016 10:53:44 +0000 Background. Epidemiological and randomized clinical trials indicate that marine polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) may have cardioprotective effects. Aim. Evaluate the associations between serum fatty acid profile, traditional risk factors, the presence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and peak Troponin T (TnT) levels in elderly patients with an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Materials and Methods. Patients () consecutively included in the ongoing Omega-3 fatty acids in elderly patients with myocardial infarction (OMEMI) trial were investigated. Peak TnT was registered during the hospital stay. Serum fatty acid analysis was performed 2–8 weeks later. Results. No significant correlations between peak TnT levels and any of the n-3 PUFAs were observed. However, patients with a history of atrial fibrillation had significantly lower docosahexaenoic acid levels than patients without. Significantly lower peak TnT levels were observed in patients with a history of hyperlipidemia, angina, MI, atrial fibrillation, intermittent claudication, and previous revascularization (all ). Conclusions. In an elderly population with AMI, no association between individual serum fatty acids and estimated myocardial infarct size could be demonstrated. However, a history of hyperlipidemia and the presence of CVD were associated with lower peak TnT levels, possibly because of treatment with cardioprotective medications. Kristian Laake, Ingebjørg Seljeflot, Erik B. Schmidt, Peder Myhre, Arnljot Tveit, Harald Arnesen, and Svein Solheim Copyright © 2016 Kristian Laake et al. All rights reserved. Synthesis of Polyformate Esters of Vegetable Oils: Milkweed, Pennycress, and Soy Wed, 03 Feb 2016 12:25:48 +0000 In a previous study of the characteristics of acyl derivatives of polyhydroxy milkweed oil (PHMWO), it was observed that the densities and viscosities of the respective derivatives decreased with increased chain length of the substituent acyl group. Thus from the polyhydroxy starting material, attenuation in viscosity of the derivatives relative to PHMWO was found in the order: PHMWO ≫ PAcMWE ≫ PBuMWE ≫ PPMWE (2332 : 1733 : 926.2 : 489.4 cSt, resp., at 40°C), where PAcMWE, PBuMWE, and PPMWE were the polyacetyl, polybutyroyl, and polypentanoyl ester derivatives, respectively. In an analogous manner, the densities also decreased as the chain length increased although not as precipitously compared to the viscosity drop. By inference, derivatives of vegetable oils with short chain length substituents on the triglyceride would be attractive in lubricant applications in view of their higher densities and possibly higher viscosity indices. Pursuant to this, we have explored the syntheses of formyl esters of three vegetable oils in order to examine the optimal density, viscosity, and related physical characteristics in relation to their suitability as lubricant candidates. In the absence of ready availability of formic anhydride, we opted to employ the epoxidized vegetable oils as substrates for formyl ester generation using glacial formic acid. The epoxy ring-opening process was smooth but was apparently followed by a simultaneous condensation reaction of the putative α-hydroxy formyl intermediate to yield vicinal diformyl esters from the oxirane. All three polyformyl esters milkweed, soy, and pennycress derivatives exhibited low coefficient of friction and a correspondingly much lower wear scar in the 4-ball antiwear test compared to the longer chain acyl analogues earlier studied. Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru, Girma Biresaw, Brent Tisserat, and Roque Evangelista Copyright © 2016 Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of Oil Content and Fatty Acid Profile of Ten New Camellia oleifera Cultivars Sun, 31 Jan 2016 15:23:08 +0000 The oil contents and fatty acid (FA) compositions of ten new and one wild Camellia oleifera varieties were investigated. Oil contents in camellia seeds from new C. oleifera varied with cultivars from 41.92% to 53.30% and were affected by cultivation place. Average oil content (47.83%) of dry seeds from all ten new cultivars was almost the same as that of wild common C. oleifera seeds (47.06%). New C. oleifera cultivars contained similar FA compositions which included palmitic acid (C16:0, PA), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), stearic acid (C18:0, SA), oleic acid (C18:1, OA), linoleic acid (C18:2, LA), linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosenoic acid (C20:1), and tetracosenoic acid (C24:1). Predominant FAs in mature seeds were OA (75.78%~81.39%), LA (4.85%~10.79%), PA (7.68%~10.01%), and SA (1.46%~2.97%) and OA had the least coefficient of variation among different new cultivars. Average ratio of single FA of ten artificial C. oleifera cultivars was consistent with that of wild common C. oleifera. All cultivars contained the same ratios of saturated FA (SFA) and unsaturated FA (USFA). Oil contents and FA profiles of new cultivars were not significantly affected by breeding and selection. Chunying Yang, Xueming Liu, Zhiyi Chen, Yaosheng Lin, and Siyuan Wang Copyright © 2016 Chunying Yang et al. All rights reserved. Influence of Abdominal Obesity on the Lipid-Lipoprotein Profile in Apoprotein E2/4 Carriers: The Effect of an Apparent Duality Wed, 28 Oct 2015 08:21:37 +0000 Background. Apolipoprotein (Apo) E plays a key role in the handling of lipoprotein particles with ApoE2 and ApoE4 frequently having opposite effects compared to ApoE3. Some individuals simultaneously carry both E2 and E4 alleles. The impact of the ApoE2/4 genotype on lipid concentrations and its consequences on health remain poorly documented. Objective. This study compared the lipid profile between ApoE2/4 carriers and other ApoE genotypes in relation to the waist circumference. Methods. Cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), and ApoB concentrations were measured among 2,680 Caucasians. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the contribution of ApoE2/4 to various dyslipidemic profiles associated with abdominal obesity. Results. In presence of abdominal obesity, the lipid profile was as deteriorated in ApoE2/4 carriers as in carriers of other ApoE genotypes. There was a more pronounced effect on TG-rich lipoproteins, particularly in ApoE2/2 (a feature of type III dysbetalipoproteinemia), and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in ApoE4/4. Compared to ApoE2/2, ApoE2/4 carriers presented lower very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol concentrations and VLDL-cholesterol/TG ratios, with or without obesity, and higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. Conclusion. In presence of abdominal obesity, the influence of the ApoE2 allele could be less pronounced than that of ApoE4 among ApoE2/4 individuals. Sylvia Villeneuve, Diane Brisson, and Daniel Gaudet Copyright © 2015 Sylvia Villeneuve et al. All rights reserved. Elevated Phospholipid Transfer Protein in Subjects with Multiple Sclerosis Wed, 12 Aug 2015 08:24:13 +0000 An anomaly in the plasma proteins of patients with multiple sclerosis detectable on SDS-PAGE has been reported. The molecular weight of the anomaly was the same as the phospholipid transfer protein. A metabolic protein was involved in lipid homeostasis and remodeling of the high density lipoproteins. We have identified the anomaly as the phospholipid transfer protein by western blot using antiphospholipid transfer antibodies. Activity assays showed that the phospholipid transfer activity was elevated in fasted plasma samples from subjects with MS compared to controls. Sequence analysis of the gene encoding the phospholipid transfer protein did not identify any mutations in the genetic structure, suggesting that the increase in activity was not due to structural changes in the protein, but may be due to one of the other proteins with which it forms active complexes. Altered phospholipid transfer activity is important because it could be implicated in the decreased lipid uptake and abnormal myelin lipids observed in multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that alteration in myelin lipid content is an epitope for autoimmunity. Therefore, lipid changes due to a defect in phospholipid transfer and/or uptake could potentially influence the course of the disease. Further research is needed to elucidate the role of the phospholipid transfer protein in subjects with multiple sclerosis. Roy A. Garvin Copyright © 2015 Roy A. Garvin. All rights reserved. Role of Inositol Phosphosphingolipid Phospholipase C1, the Yeast Homolog of Neutral Sphingomyelinases in DNA Damage Response and Diseases Thu, 06 Aug 2015 08:04:52 +0000 Sphingolipids play a very crucial role in many diseases and are well-known as signaling mediators in many pathways. Sphingolipids are produced during the de novo process in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum) from the nonsphingolipid precursor and comprise both structural and bioactive lipids. Ceramide is the central core of the sphingolipid pathway, and its production has been observed following various treatments that can induce several different cellular effects including growth arrest, DNA damage, apoptosis, differentiation, and senescence. Ceramides are generally produced through the sphingomyelin hydrolysis and catalyzed by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (SMase) in mammals. Presently, there are many known SMases and they are categorized into three groups acid SMases (aSMases), alkaline SMases (alk-SMASES), and neutral SMases (nSMases). The yeast homolog of mammalians neutral SMases is inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C. Yeasts generally have inositol phosphosphingolipids instead of sphingomyelin, which may act as a homolog of mammalian sphingomyelin. In this review, we shall explain the structure and function of inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1, its localization inside the cells, mechanisms, and its roles in various cell responses during replication stresses and diseases. This review will also give a new basis for our understanding for the mechanisms and nature of the inositol phosphosphingolipid phospholipase C1/nSMase. Kaushlendra Tripathi Copyright © 2015 Kaushlendra Tripathi. All rights reserved. Effects of Myeloperoxidase-Induced Oxidation on Antiatherogenic Functions of High-Density Lipoprotein Tue, 14 Jul 2015 12:21:14 +0000 High-density lipoprotein (HDL) has protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis; these effects include reverse cholesterol transport, antioxidant ability, and anti-inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) secreted by macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions generates tyrosyl radicals in apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) molecules, inducing the formation of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers through the tyrosine-tyrosine bond in HDL. Functional characterization of HDL oxidized by MPO could provide useful information about the significance of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers measurement. We investigated the effects of MPO-induced oxidation on the antiatherogenic functions of HDL as described above. The antioxidant ability of HDL, estimated as the effect on LDL oxidation induced by copper sulfate, was not significantly affected after MPO oxidation. HDL reduced THP-1 monocyte migration by suppressing the stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). MPO-oxidized HDL also showed inhibition of THP-1 chemotaxis, but the extent of inhibition was significantly attenuated compared to intact HDL. MPO treatment did not affect the cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL from [3H]-cholesterol-laden macrophages derived from THP-1 cells. The principal effect of MPO oxidation on the antiatherogenic potential of HDL would be the reduction of anti-inflammatory ability, suggesting that measurement of apoA-I/apoA-II heterodimers might be useful to estimate anti-inflammatory ability of HDL. Takahiro Kameda, Ryunosuke Ohkawa, Kouji Yano, Yoko Usami, Akari Miyazaki, Kazuyuki Matsuda, Kenji Kawasaki, Mitsutoshi Sugano, Tetsuo Kubota, and Minoru Tozuka Copyright © 2015 Takahiro Kameda et al. All rights reserved. Emerging Risk Biomarkers in Cardiovascular Diseases and Disorders Wed, 08 Apr 2015 14:27:48 +0000 Present review article highlights various cardiovascular risk prediction biomarkers by incorporating both traditional risk factors to be used as diagnostic markers and recent technologically generated diagnostic and therapeutic markers. This paper explains traditional biomarkers such as lipid profile, glucose, and hormone level and physiological biomarkers based on measurement of levels of important biomolecules such as serum ferritin, triglyceride to HDLp (high density lipoproteins) ratio, lipophorin-cholesterol ratio, lipid-lipophorin ratio, LDL cholesterol level, HDLp and apolipoprotein levels, lipophorins and LTPs ratio, sphingolipids, Omega-3 Index, and ST2 level. In addition, immunohistochemical, oxidative stress, inflammatory, anatomical, imaging, genetic, and therapeutic biomarkers have been explained in detail with their investigational specifications. Many of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, can play important role in prediction of risks, its types, and status of morbidity. As emerging risks are found to be affiliated with minor and microlevel factors and its diagnosis at an earlier stage could find CVD, hence, there is an urgent need of new more authentic, appropriate, and reliable diagnostic and therapeutic markers to confirm disease well in time to start the clinical aid to the patients. Present review aims to discuss new emerging biomarkers that could facilitate more authentic and fast diagnosis of CVDs, HF (heart failures), and various lipid abnormalities and disorders in the future. Ravi Kant Upadhyay Copyright © 2015 Ravi Kant Upadhyay. All rights reserved. Effects of Statin versus the Combination of Ezetimibe plus Statin on Serum Lipid Absorption Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Sun, 01 Mar 2015 10:00:10 +0000 Background. The use of statins is essential for aggressive lipid-lowering treatment in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with dyslipidemia. Recently, elevation of sitosterol, a lipid absorption marker, was reported to be associated with premature atherosclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of ezetimibe, a selective intestinal cholesterol transporter inhibitor, in ACS patients. Methods. A total of 197 ACS patients were randomized to pitavastatin + ezetimibe () or pitavastatin (). Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and sitosterol levels were evaluated on admission and after 12 weeks. Results. After 12 weeks, the pitavastatin + ezetimibe group showed a significantly greater decrease of sitosterol (baseline versus after 12 weeks; 2.9 ± 2.5 versus 1.7 ± 1.0 ng/mL, ) than the pitavastatin group (2.7 ± 1.5 versus 3.0 ± 1.4 ng/mL). The baseline sitosterol level was significantly higher in patients with achieved LDL-C levels ≥ 70 mg/dL than in patients with levels < 70 mg/dL (3.2 ± 2.5 versus 2.4 ± 1.3 ng/mL, ). Conclusions. Ezetimibe plus statin therapy in ACS patients with dyslipidemia decreased LDL-C and sitosterol levels more than statin therapy solo. Sitosterol Elevation was a predictor of poor response to aggressive lipid-lowering treatment in ACS patients. Erisa Watanabe, Junichi Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Arashi, Hiroshi Ogawa, and Nobuhisa Hagiwara Copyright © 2015 Erisa Watanabe et al. All rights reserved. Beneficial Role of Bitter Melon Supplementation in Obesity and Related Complications in Metabolic Syndrome Mon, 12 Jan 2015 09:36:03 +0000 Diabetes, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are becoming epidemic both in developed and developing countries in recent years. Complementary and alternative medicines have been used since ancient era for the treatment of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Bitter melon is widely used as vegetables in daily food in Bangladesh and several other countries in Asia. The fruits extract of bitter melon showed strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in experimental condition both in vivo and in vitro. Recent scientific evaluation of this plant extracts also showed potential therapeutic benefit in diabetes and obesity related metabolic dysfunction in experimental animals and clinical studies. These beneficial effects are mediated probably by inducing lipid and fat metabolizing gene expression and increasing the function of AMPK and PPARs, and so forth. This review will thus focus on the recent findings on beneficial effect of Momordica charantia extracts on metabolic syndrome and discuss its potential mechanism of actions. Md Ashraful Alam, Riaz Uddin, Nusrat Subhan, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Preeti Jain, and Hasan Mahmud Reza Copyright © 2015 Md Ashraful Alam et al. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition and Levels of Selected Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Four Commercial Important Freshwater Fish Species from Lake Victoria, Tanzania Thu, 25 Dec 2014 00:10:01 +0000 Fatty acids (FAs) particularly ω3 and ω6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play important role in human health. This study aimed to investigate the composition and levels of selected ω3 PUFAs in four commercial fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus), Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), Tilapia zillii, and dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) from Mwanza Gulf in Lake Victoria. The results indicated that 36 types of FAs with different saturation levels were detected. These FAs were dominated by docosahexaenoic (DHA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosapentaenoic (DPA), and eicosatetraenoic acids. O. niloticus had the highest composition of FAs (34) compared to L. niloticus (27), T. zillii (26), and R. argentea (21). The levels of EPA differed significantly among the four commercial fish species . The highest EPA levels were found in R. argentea followed by L. niloticus and O. niloticus and the lowest in T. zillii. The DPA levels showed no significant difference among the four fish species studied . The study concluded that all four commercial species collected from Mwanza Gulf are good for human health, but R. argentea is the best for consumption because it contains higher levels of ω3 FAs, mainly EPA. Agnes Robert, Prosper Mfilinge, Samwel M. Limbu, and Chacha J. Mwita Copyright © 2014 Agnes Robert et al. All rights reserved. Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk from Chickens Fed a Diet including Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Mon, 22 Dec 2014 13:33:47 +0000 The objective of this study was to determine the effects of diet supplemented with marigold on egg yolk fatty acid composition and egg quality parameters. Sixty hens were assigned into three groups and fed diets supplemented with 0 (control), 10 g kg−1, or 20 g kg−1 marigold for 42 days. Eggs collected at the 6th week of the study were analyzed for fatty acid analysis. Laying performance, egg quality parameters, and feed intake were also evaluated. Yolk color scores in the group fed the 20 g kg−1 marigold-supplemented diet were found greater than control (10.77 versus 9.77). Inclusion of 20 g kg−1 marigold in diet influenced egg weights adversely compared to the control. Diet supplemented with 10 g kg−1 or 20 g kg−1 marigold increased the levels of C16:0 and C18:0 and decreased levels of C16:1 (n-7) and C18:1 (n-9) in the egg yolk. Also, diet including marigold increased total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) in the egg yolk. A. Altuntaş and R. Aydin Copyright © 2014 A. Altuntaş and R. Aydin. All rights reserved. Association of High Density Lipoprotein with Platelet to Lymphocyte and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratios in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Sun, 16 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Background. We aimed to evaluate a relationship between platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Methods. A total of 354 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary blockages were enrolled in the study. Hematological indices and lipid profiling data of all the patients were collected. Results. We have observed significant association between HDL and PLR () and NLR (); however no significant relationship was obtained with HDL and isolated platelet (), neutrophil (), and lymphocyte () counts in CAD patients. The association was subjected to gender specific variation as in males PLR () and NLR () were highly elevated in low HDL patients, whereas in females the elevation could not reach the statistically significant level. The PLR (217.47 versus 190.3; ) and NLR (6.33 versus 5.10; ) were significantly higher among the patients with acute coronary syndrome. In young patients the PLR () and NLR () were inversely associated with HDL, whereas in older population only NLR () had showed a significant association. Conclusion. We conclude that PLR and NLR are significantly elevated in CAD patients having low HDL levels. Jayesh H. Prajapati, Sibasis Sahoo, Tushar Nikam, Komal H. Shah, Bhumika Maheriya, and Meena Parmar Copyright © 2014 Jayesh H. Prajapati et al. All rights reserved. Incubation of MDCO-216 (ApoA-IMilano/POPC) with Human Serum Potentiates ABCA1-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Capacity, Generates New Prebeta-1 HDL, and Causes an Increase in HDL Size Wed, 12 Nov 2014 07:51:12 +0000 MDCO-216 is a complex of dimeric ApoA-IMilano and palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC), previously shown to reduce atherosclerotic plaque burden. Here we studied the effect of incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 on cholesterol efflux capacity from J774 cells, on prebeta-1 high density lipoprotein (prebeta-1 HDL) and on HDL size assessed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR). MDCO-216 incubated in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin stimulated both ABCA1-mediated efflux and ABCA1-independent cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages. When incubated with human serum a dose- and time-dependent synergistic increase of the ABCA1-mediated efflux capacity were observed. Using a commercially available ELISA for prebeta-1 HDL, MDCO-216 as such was poorly detected (12–15% of nominal amount of protein). Prebeta-1 HDL was rapidly lost when human plasma alone is incubated at 37°C. In contrast, incubation of human plasma with MDCO-216 at 37°C produced a large amount of new prebeta-1 HDL. Native 2D electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with an apoA-I antibody, which also detects ApoA-I Milano, confirmed the increase in prebeta-1 HDL upon incubation at 37°C. With the increase of prebeta-1 HDL, the concomitant disappearance of the small alpha-3 and alpha-4 HDL and MDCO-216 and an increase in the large alpha-1 and alpha-2 HDL were observed. Immunoblotting with Mab 17F3 specific for ApoA-I Milano showed the appearance of ApoA-I Milano in alpha-1 and alpha-2, but not in prebeta-1 HDL. 1H-NMR analysis of plasma incubated with MDCO-216 confirmed rapid disappearance of small-sized HDL particles and increase of medium- and large-sized HDL particles accompanied with a decrease in total HDL particle number. In conclusion, incubation of human plasma or serum with MDCO-216 strongly enhanced ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux, caused a strong increase of prebeta-1 HDL, and drastically changed the distribution of HDL subpopulations. Overall, the results are in line with the hypothesis that MDCO-216 fuses with small alpha-migrating HDL particles forming larger particles containing both apoA-I WT and ApoA-I Milano, meanwhile liberating the endogenous wild-type apoA-I which enriches prebeta-1 HDL subpopulation. Herman J. Kempen, Dorota B. Schranz, Bela F. Asztalos, James Otvos, Elias Jeyarajah, Denise Drazul-Schrader, Heidi L. Collins, Steven J. Adelman, and Peter L. J. Wijngaard Copyright © 2014 Herman J. Kempen et al. All rights reserved. Retracted: Why Fish Oil Fails: A Comprehensive 21st Century Lipids-Based Physiologic Analysis Wed, 05 Nov 2014 09:41:34 +0000 Journal of Lipids Copyright © 2014 Journal of Lipids. All rights reserved. Usefulness of Lipid Apheresis in the Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia Sun, 19 Oct 2014 08:53:22 +0000 Lipid apheresis is used to treat patients with severe hyperlipidemia by reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). This study examines the effect of apheresis on the lipid panel and cardiac event rates before and after apheresis. An electronic health record screen of ambulatory patients identified 11 active patients undergoing lipid apheresis with 10/11 carrying a diagnosis of FH. Baseline demographics, pre- and postapheresis lipid levels, highest recorded LDL-C, cardiac events, current medications, and first apheresis treatment were recorded. Patients completed a questionnaire and self-reported risk factors and interest in alternative treatment. There were significant reductions in mean total cholesterol (−58.4%), LDL-C (−71.9%), triglycerides (−51%), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (−9.3%), and non-HDL (−68.2%) values. Thirty-four cardiac events were documented in 8 patients before apheresis, compared with 9 events in 5 patients after apheresis. Our survey showed a high prevalence of statin intolerance (64%), with the majority (90%) of participants indicating an interest in alternative treatment options. Our results have shown that lipid apheresis primary effect is a marked reduction in LDL-C cholesterol levels and may reduce the recurrence of cardiac events. Apheresis should be compared to the newer alternative treatment modalities in a randomized fashion due to patient interest in alternative options. Matthew Lui, Ross Garberich, Craig Strauss, Thomas Davin, and Thomas Knickelbine Copyright © 2014 Matthew Lui et al. All rights reserved. ApoA-I/HDL Generation and Intracellular Cholesterol Transport through Cytosolic Lipid-Protein Particles in Astrocytes Wed, 13 Aug 2014 00:00:00 +0000 Exogenous apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) associates with ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) on the cell surface of astrocytes like various peripheral cells and enhances the translocation of newly synthesized cholesterol from the endoplasmic reticulum/Golgi apparatus (ER/Golgi) to the cytosol. The cholesterol translocated to the cytosol is incorporated to cytosolic lipid-protein particles (CLPP) together with phospholipids and proteins such as sphingomyelin, phosphatidylcholine, caveolin-1, protein kinase Cα (PK-Cα), and cyclophilin A. The CLPP are high density lipoproteins- (HDL-)like cytosolic lipid-protein complex with densities of 1.09–1.16 g/mL and diameters of 17-18 nm. The association of exogenous apoA-I with cellular ABCA1 induces tyrosine phosphorylation, activation, and translocation to the CLPP of ABCA1-associated phospholipase Cγ (PL-Cγ) in rat astrocytes. Furthermore, PK-Cα is translocated and activated to/in the CLPP through the production of diacylglyceride in the CLPP. ApoA-I enhances both the association of CLPP with microtubules and the phosphorylation of α-tubulin as a component of microtubules. The CLPP are dissociated from microtubules after α-tubulin in microtubules is phosphorylated by the CLPP-associated PK-Cα. The association and dissociation between CLPP and microtubules may participate in the intracellular transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane. Jinichi Ito and Makoto Michikawa Copyright © 2014 Jinichi Ito and Makoto Michikawa. All rights reserved. Physicochemical Characteristics of Citrus Seed Oils from Kerman, Iran Thu, 17 Jul 2014 09:44:41 +0000 Recently, there has been a great deal of attention on usage, byproducts, and wastes of the food industry. There have been many studies on the properties of citrus seeds and extracted oil from citrus grown in Kerman, Iran. The rate of oil content of citrus seeds varies between 33.4% and 41.9%. Linoleic acid (33.2% to 36.3%) is the key fatty acid found in citrus seeds oil and oleic (24.8% to 29.3%) and palmitic acids (23.5% to 29.4%) are the next main fatty acids, respectively. There are also other acids found at trivial rates such as stearic, palmitoleic, and linolenic. With variation between 0.54 meg/kg and 0.77 mgq/kg in peroxide values of citrus seed oils, acidity value of the oil varies between 0.44% and 0.72%. The results of the study showed that citrus seeds under study (orange and sour lemon grown in Kerman province) and the extracted oil have the potential of being used as the source of edible oil. Mohammad Reazai, Issa Mohammadpourfard, Shahrokh Nazmara, Mahdi Jahanbakhsh, and Leila Shiri Copyright © 2014 Mohammad Reazai et al. All rights reserved.