Table of Contents
Journal of Metallurgy
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 762125, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/762125
Research Article

Surface Modification of Light Alloys by Low-Energy High-Current Pulsed Electron Beam

1Key Laboratory of Materials Modification, Department of Materials Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, China
2Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), CNRS UMR 7239, Université Paul Verlaine-Metz, Ile du Saulcy, 57045 Metz, France
3Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Mg Materials and Applications, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
4School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang University, Shenyang 200240, China

Received 16 February 2011; Revised 17 August 2011; Accepted 9 December 2011

Academic Editor: Stefano Gialanella

Copyright © 2012 X. D. Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, and G. E. Ozur, “Use of low-energy, high-current electron beams for surface treatment of materials,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 117–122, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, G. E. Ozur et al., “Pulsed electron-beam technology for surface modification of metallic materials,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 2480–2488, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. G. E. Ozur, D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, and A. B. Markov, “Production and application of low-energy high-current electron beams,” Laser and Particle Beams, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 157–174, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. I. Proskurovsky, V. P. Rotshtein, G. E. Ozur, Y. F. Ivanov, and A. B. Markov, “Physical foundations for surface treatment of materials with low energy, high current electron beams,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 125, no. 1–3, pp. 49–56, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. Y. Qin, C. Dong, Z. Song et al., “Deep Modification of materials by thermal stress wave generated by irradiation of high-current pulsed electron beams,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 430–435, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. B. Gao, S. Hao, J. Zou et al., “High current pulsed electron beam treatment of AZ31 Mg alloy,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 23, no. 6, pp. 1548–1553, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. X. Zou, K. M. Zhang, S. Z. Hao, C. Dong, and T. Grosdidier, “Mechanisms of hardening, wear and corrosion improvement of 316 L stainless steel by low energy high current pulsed electron beam surface treatment,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 4, pp. 1404–1415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. Zou, K. Zhang, C. Dong, Y. Qin, S. Hao, and T. Grosdidier, “Selective surface purification via crater eruption under pulsed electron beam irradiation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 89, no. 4, Article ID 041913, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, C. Dong, and D. Yang, “Improved pitting corrosion resistance of AISI 316L stainless steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 3-4, pp. 1393–1400, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. M. Zhang, D. Z. Yang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Improved in vitro corrosion resistance of a NiTi alloy by high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 6, pp. 3096–3102, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Hao, S. Yao, J. Guan, A. Wu, P. Zhong, and C. Dong, “Surface treatment of aluminum by high current pulsed electron beam,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 1, no. 2-3, pp. 203–208, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. Zou, Y. Qin, A. Wu, S. Hao, X. Wang, and C. Dong, “Thermal-mechanical simulation of high-current pulsed electron beam surface modification process of pure aluminum,” Nuclear Techniques, vol. 27, no. 7, p. 519, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. X. D. Zhang, S. Z. Hao, X. N. Li, C. Dong, and T. Grosdidier, “Surface modification of pure titanium by pulsed electron beam,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 257, no. 13, pp. 5899–5902, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. T. Zhao, B. Gao, X. Tian, G. Tu, S. Hao, and C. Dong, “Modification and alloying of high purity magnesium surface with high current pulsed electron beam,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. X. Zou, Y. Qin, B. Gao et al., “Surface melting and evaporation of pure Mg bombarded by high current pulsed electron beam,” Transactions of Materials and Heat Treatment, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 36–41, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Gao, S. Z. Hao, C. Dong, and G. F. Tu, “Improvement of wear resistance of AZ31 and AZ91HP by high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China (English Edition), vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 978–984, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. B. Gao, S. Hao, J. Zou, W. Wu, G. Tu, and C. Dong, “Effect of high current pulsed electron beam treatment on surface microstructure and wear and corrosion resistance of an AZ91HP magnesium alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 201, no. 14, pp. 6297–6303, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, K. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Mechanisms of nanostructure and metastable phase formations in the surface melted layers of a HCPEB-treated D2 steel,” Acta Materialia, vol. 54, no. 20, pp. 5409–5419, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Zhang, J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Formation and evolution of craters in carbon steels during low-energy high-current pulsed electron-beam treatment,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 1217–1226, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier et al., “Mechanisms of structural evolutions associated with the high current pulsed electron beam treatment of a NiTi shape memory alloy,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 28–36, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Hao, P. Wu, J. Zou, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Microstructure evolution occurring in the modified surface of 316L stainless steel under high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 12, pp. 5349–5354, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, B. Bolle, K. M. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Texture and microstructure at the surface of an AISI D2 steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, vol. 38, no. 9, pp. 2061–2071, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. X. Zou, K. M. Zhang, T. Grosdidier et al., “Orientation-dependent deformation on 316L stainless steel induced by high-current pulsed electron beam irradiation,” Materials Science and Engineering A, vol. 483-484, no. 1-2 C, pp. 302–305, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. Grosdidier, J. X. Zou, N. Stein, C. Boulanger, S. Z. Hao, and C. Dong, “Texture modification, grain refinement and improved hardness/corrosion balance of a FeAl alloy by pulsed electron beam surface treatment in the "heating mode",” Scripta Materialia, vol. 58, no. 12, pp. 1058–1061, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. T. Grosdidier, J. X. Zou, B. Bolle, S. Z. Hao, and C. Dong, “Grain refinement, hardening and metastable phase formation by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment under heating and melting modes,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 504, no. 1, pp. S508–S511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, K. M. Zhang, and C. Dong, “Cross-sectional analysis of the graded microstructure in an AISI D2-steel treated with low energy high-current pulsed electron beam,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 255, no. 9, pp. 4758–4764, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. Q. F. Guan, P. L. Yang, H. Zou, and G. T. Zou, “Nanocrystalline and amorphous surface structure of 0.45%C steel produced by high current pulsed electron beam,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 479–483, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Q. Cheng, Q. F. Guan, J. Zhu, D. H. Qiu, X. W. Cheng, and X. T. Wang, “Mechanism of surface nanocrystallization in pure nickel induced by high-current pulsed electron beam,” Acta Physica Sinica, vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 7300–7306, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. T. Grosdidier, Y. Samih, N. Allain-Bonasso et al., “Grain refinement and hardening induced by heavy deformation using low energy high current pulsed electron beam surface treatment,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Nanomaterials by Severe Plastic Deformation (NanoSPD '11), pp. 499–504, Nanjing, China, Trans Tech Publications Ltd, 2011.
  30. V. P. Rotshtein, D. I. Proskurovsky, G. E. Ozur, Y. F. Ivanov, and A. B. Markov, “Surface modification and alloying of metallic materials with low-energy high-current electron beams,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 180-181, pp. 377–381, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. N. Valyaev, V. S. Ladysev, A. D. Pogrebnjak, A. A. Valyaev, and S. V. Plotnikov, “Comparative analysis of radiation damages, mechanical and tribological properties of α-Fe exposed to intense-pulsed electron and ion beams,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 161, pp. 1132–1136, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. V. P. Rotshtein, Y. F. Ivanov, A. B. Markov et al., “Surface alloying of stainless steel 316 with copper using pulsed electron-beam melting of film-substrate system,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 22-23, pp. 6378–6383, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. H. Lee, J. D. Hunn, N. Hashimoto, and L. K. Mansur, “Hardness and defect structures in EC316LN austenitic alloy irradiated under a simulated spallation neutron source environment using triple ion-beams,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 278, no. 2, pp. 266–272, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. D. J. Edwards, E. P. Simonen, and S. M. Bruemmer, “Evolution of fine-scale defects in stainless steels neutron-irradiated at 275C,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, vol. 317, no. 1, pp. 13–31, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. X. P. Zhu, H. Suematsu, W. Jiang, K. Yatsui, and M. K. Lei, “Pulsed-ion-beam nitriding and smoothing of titanium surface in a vacuum,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 87, no. 9, Article ID 09311, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. S. Guessasma, E. Suzon, T. Grosdidier, and F. Wagner, “Static recrystallisation in an ODS FeAl alloy: the effect of particles on texture and anisotropic grain growth developments,” Intermetallics, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1013–1025, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. X.-X. Lu, R.-G. Li, and J. An, “Numerical simulation of thermal-mechanical process of Al-Si-Pb alloy treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Transactions of the Nonferrous Metals Society of China, vol. 16, pp. s1433–s1436, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  38. J. An, X. X. Shen, Y. Lu et al., “Influence of high current pulsed electron beam treatment on the tribological properties of Al-Si-Pb alloy,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 200, no. 18-19, pp. 5590–5597, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Daichi, Z. Wang, K. Yamazaki, and S. Sano, “Investigation of the formation and energy density of high-current pulsed electron beams,” Plasma Chemistry and Plasma Processing, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 458–472, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Hao, X. Zhang, X. Mei, T. Grosdidier, and C. Dong, “Surface treatment of DZ4 directionally solidified nickel-based superalloy by high current pulsed electron beam,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 414–417, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, C. Dong, and S. Weber, “Ti surface alloying of an AISI 316L stainless steel by low energy high current pulsed electron beam treatment,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 1407–1414, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. K. M. Zhang, J. X. Zou, T. Grosdidier, C. Dong, and S. Weber, “Rapid surface alloying by Ti of AISI 316L stainless steel using low energy high current pulsed electron beam,” The European Physical Journal: Applied Physics, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 343–347, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. T. Grosdidier, J. X. Zou, B. Bolle, S. Z. Hao, and C. Dong, “Grain refinement, hardening and metastable phase formation by high current pulsed electron beam (HCPEB) treatment under heating and melting modes,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 504, no. 1, pp. S508–S511, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Gao, Y. Hao, G. Tu, W. Shi, F. Yu, and S. Li, “Compounded surface modification of ZK60 Mg alloy by high current pulsed electron beam+micro-plasma oxidation,” Plasma Science and Technology, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 67–70, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. Xu, G. Tang, G. Guo, X. Ma, and G. E. Ozur, “Influence of irradiation number of high current pulsed electron beam on the structure and properties of M50 steel,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research, Section B, vol. 268, no. 15, pp. 2395–2399, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. F. Xu, G. Guo, G. Tang et al., “Microstructure modifications and corrosion behaviors of Cr4Mo4V steel treated by high current pulsed electron beam,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 904–908, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar