Table of Contents
Journal of Metallurgy
Volume 2015, Article ID 926028, 9 pages
Research Article

Conversion of Mill Scale Waste into Valuable Products via Carbothermic Reduction

Steel Technology Department (STD), Central Metallurgical R&D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87, Helwan, Cairo 11421, Egypt

Received 1 June 2015; Accepted 30 August 2015

Academic Editor: Brij Kumar Dhindaw

Copyright © 2015 Mamdouh Eissa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Mill scale is one of waste materials which is produced as a result of hot rolling of steel in all steel companies. On the other hand, mill scale is considered a rich iron source with minimum impurities. This work aims at conversion of mill scale by adjusting smelting processes to produce different valuable products. The smelting processes were carried out using carbothermic reduction in a submerged arc furnace. Two carbonaceous reducing agents and different fluxing materials have been used to adapt optimum smelting process condition. A maximum iron recovery of 83% was obtained by using graphite compared with 76% obtained by using coke. Low sulphur content (≤0.02 wt% S) can be attained by using graphite as a reducing agent in amount that equals or exceeds the stoichiometric molar ratio. By using coke, the highest degree of desulfurization of 97.8% and much lower content of sulphur in the castable metal (0.0028 wt% S) were obtained by controlling the type and quantity of the flux. The results reveal that mill scale waste can be converted into valuable products such as high purity iron as alternative to Sorelmetal used in ductile iron production, low carbon steel, and free cutting steel.