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Journal of Materials
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 802123, 10 pages
Research Article

Conduction Mechanism by Using CBH Model in Fe3+ and Mn3+ Ion Modified Pb(Zr0.65−xAxTi0.35)O3 (A = Mn3+/Fe3+) Ceramics

1Department of Physics, Purushottam Institute of Engineering and Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 770034, India
2Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Odisha 769008, India
3Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Patna, Bihar, 800013, India

Received 14 December 2012; Accepted 21 January 2013

Academic Editor: Iwan Kityk

Copyright © 2013 Niranjan Sahu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Polycrystalline samples of manganese and iron substituted lead zirconium titanate (PZT) with general formula Pb(Zr0.65−xAxTi0.35)O3 (A = Mn3+ and Fe3+) ceramics have been synthesized by high temperature solid state reaction technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded at room temperature to study the crystal structure. All the patterns could be refined by employing the Rietveld method to R3c space group with rhombohedral symmetry. Microstructural properties of the materials were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), and compositional analysis was carried out by energy dispersive spectrum (EDS) measurements. All the materials exhibit ferroelectric to paraelectric transition. The variation of dielectric constant and loss tangent with temperature and frequency is investigated. The decrease of activation energy and increases of AC conductivity with the Fe3+ or Mn3+ ion concentration have been observed. The AC conductivity has been analyzed by the power law. The frequency exponent with the function of temperature has been analyzed by assuming that the AC conduction mechanism is the correlated barrier hopping (CBH) model. The conduction in the present sample is found to be of bipolaron type for Mn3+ ion-doped sample. However, the conduction mechanism could not be explained by CBH model for Fe3+ ion-doped sample.