## Fuzzy Approximation and its Applications in Stabilization of Dynamic Systems

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Awais Asif, Hassen Aydi, Muhammad Arshad, Abdul Rehman, Usman Tariq, "Picture Fuzzy Ideals of Near-Rings", *Journal of Mathematics*, vol. 2020, Article ID 8857459, 10 pages, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8857459

# Picture Fuzzy Ideals of Near-Rings

**Academic Editor:**Heng Liu

#### Abstract

A picture fuzzy set (PFS) is an augmentation of Atanassov’s intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS). The PFS-based models are useful in the circumstances when we face uncertain and vague information, especially in the case when we need more answers of the form “indeed,” “avoid,” “no,” and “refusal.” It has been considered as an essential tool to deal with unsure data during an investigation. In this manuscript, we explore the idea of a picture fuzzy near-ring (PFNR) and a picture fuzzy ideal (PFI) of a near-ring (NR). We illustrate some basic properties such as union, intersection, homomorphic image, and preimage of PFIs of a NR. Furthermore, there is discussion about the direct product of PFIs of a NR.

#### 1. Introduction

Fuzzy set (FS) was first introduced by Zadeh [1]. It discusses the grade of truth values belonging to a unit interval. FS is a valuable technique to cope with vague and difficult information in a real-life decision. It has received extensive attention from researchers and has been utilized in decision-making in many ways (see [2, 3]). However, in some cases, FS cannot work reliably. For coping such types of issues, Atanassov [4] explored the intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS) to deal with more complex problems. IFS contains truth and falsity grades, whose sum is belonging to a unit interval. IFS is a more modified version of a FS, and many researchers have used it in decision-making [5], such as medical diagnosis [6] and pattern recognition [7]. Although FS and IFS are applicable in various fields, however, there exist problems when a decision maker face various kinds of opinions of human beings such as “yes,” “abstinence,” “no,” and “refusal.” To coping with such kinds of problems, Cuong [8] explored the concept of a picture fuzzy set (PFS), containing the grades of truth, abstinence, falsity, and refusal, whose sum is belonging to a unit interval. To deal with uncertain and difficult information in real-life decisions, PFS is more effective than the IFS and FS. Joshi [9] presented a new setting as criteria of fuzzy entropy for the PFS and proposed a picture fuzzy information model based on Tsallis–Havrda–Charvat entropy. Qyias et al. [10] established aggregation operators based on linguistic PFSs and their application in decision-making problems, while Ganie et al. [11] examined the new correlation coefficient for the PFS.

The concept of an ideal in the frame of a near-ring is discussed by numerous scholars by using intuitionistic fuzzy sets. To investigate complicated and awkward information, a picture fuzzy set is a more influential tool than the fuzzy set and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Thus, the concept of a picture fuzzy ideal of near-rings is presented in this article. Our results clearly show that the idea of a picture fuzzy set is more proficient and reliable than the aforementioned concepts. The notion of fuzzy sub-near-rings (FSNR) and fuzzy ideals (FI) of a NR was introduced by Abou-Zaid [12]. This concept was further discussed by Kim [13] and Dutta and Biswas [14]. Chinnadurai and Kadalarasi [15] discussed the direct product of *n* (*n* = 1, 2, …, *k*) FSNR, FI, and fuzzy *R*-subgroups. The advantages of a PFS became the motivation of our main theorems. The results presented are entirely new and more beneficial than the existing results in the literature. The aims of this manuscript are given as follows:(1)To explore the idea of a picture fuzzy near-ring (PFNR) and a picture fuzzy ideal (PFI) of a near-ring (NR)(2)To describe some basic properties such as union, intersection, homomorphic image, and preimage of PFIs of a NR(3)To elaborate the direct product of PFIs of a NR

The summary of this manuscript is as follows: in Section 2, we review some notions such as groups, subgroups, ideals, and fuzzy sets. In Section 3, we explore the idea of a picture fuzzy near-ring (PFNR) and a picture fuzzy ideal (PFI) of a near-ring (NR). In Section 4, we investigate some basic properties such as union, intersection, homomorphic image, and preimage of a PFI of a NR. In Section 5, we discuss about the direct product of PFIs of a NR. The conclusion of this manuscript is discussed in Section 6.

#### 2. Preliminaries

The aim of this study is to recall some basic notions such as near-rings, ideals of a near-ring, fuzzy sub-near-rings, fuzzy ideals, and picture fuzzy sets.

*Definition 1 (see [13]). *For any nonempty set with two binary operations “+” and “,” we say that is called a near-ring if the following conditions hold:(i) is a group(ii) is a semigroup(iii) for

*Definition 2 (see [14]). *An ideal of a NR is a subgroup of such that(i) is a normal subgroup of ,(ii),(iii), for and , where is a left ideal of whenever satisfies (i) and (ii) and a right ideal of if satisfies (i) and (iii).

*Definition 3 (see [16]). *A FS in a NR is said to be a fuzzy sub-near-ring of if(i) for all (ii), for all

*Definition 4 (see [16]). *A FS in a NR is said to be a fuzzy ideal of if(i) for all (ii), for all (iii), for all (iv), for all A fuzzy set satisfying (i)–(iii) is called a fuzzy left ideal of , whereas a fuzzy set with (i) and (ii) is called a fuzzy right ideal of .

*Definition 5 (see [8]). *A PFS on the universe of discourse characterized by a truth membership function , an indeterminacy function , and a falsity membership function is defined aswhere and .

*Definition 6 (see [8]). *Let and be PFSs of . Then,wherefor all *.*wherefor all *.*

#### 3. Picture Fuzzy Ideals of Near-Rings

The aim of this study is to explore the idea of a PFNR and a PFI of a NR.

*Definition 7. *A PFS in a NR is called a PFSNR of if(i).(ii).

*Definition 8. *Let be a NR. A PFS in a NR is called a PFS of if(i).(ii).(iii).(iv).A picture fuzzy subset with the above conditions (i)–(iii) is called a picture fuzzy left ideal of , whereas a picture fuzzy subset with (i), (ii), and (iv) is called a picture fuzzy right ideal of .

Theorem 1. *Let and be PFIs of . If , then is a PFI of .*

*Proof. *Let and be PFIs of . Let ; then,Similarly, for the abstinence degree, we writeand for falsity grade, we haveNext, we writeFor the abstinence degree, we obtainand for falsity grade, we getFurthermore, we deduce thatAt last, we obtainTherefore, is a PFI of *.*

Theorem 2. *Let and be PFIs of . If , then is a PFI of .*

*Proof. *Let and be PFIs of . Let . Then, the following are obtained.

For truth grade, we getSimilarly, for abstinence grade, we writeand for falsity grade, we obtainNext, we obtainSimilarly,Furthermore, we deduce thatFinally, we conclude thatTherefore, is a PFI of .

Corollary 1. *If are PFIs of , then is a PFI of .*

Lemma 1. *For all and is any positive integer, if , then*(1)*.*(2)*.*(3)*.*

Theorem 3. *Let be a PFI of . Then,is a PFI of , where is a positive integer and , and .*

*Proof. *Let be a PFI of . Let . Then, the following are observed.

For truth grade, we can writeSimilarly, for abstinence grade, we getand for falsity grade, we obtain the following:Next, it is obtained thatAlso, we examine thatAt last, we write thatTherefore, is a PFI of .

#### 4. Direct Product of Picture Fuzzy Ideals of Near-Rings

This section throws light on some basic properties such as union, intersection, homomorphic image, and preimage of PFIs of a NR.

*Definition 9. *Let and be picture fuzzy subsets of near-rings (PFSSNR) and , respectively. Then, the direct product of PFSSNRs is defined by such thatwhere

*Example 1. *Suppose is a near-ring with binary operations “+” and “,” defined by and , respectively. Suppose PFSs and defined byThen, we say that and are PFI of . Now,Note that this example can be extended to construct an example for Definition 10.

*Definition 10. *Let and be PFSSNRs and , respectively. Then, is a PFI of if it satisfies the following conditions:

Theorem 4. *Let and be PFIs of , respectively. Then, is a PFI of .*

*Proof. *Let and be PFIs of and, respectively. Let . Then, the following are obtained.

For truth grade, we obtain the following:Similarly, for abstinence grade, we writeand for falsity grade, we getNext, it is clear thatSimilarly,Moreover, we deduce the following inequalities:Similarly,Finally, we prove thatAlso,Therefore, is a PFI of .

#### 5. Homomorphism of Picture Fuzzy Ideals of Near-Rings

This section is concerned with the direct product of PFIs of a NR.

*Definition 11. *Let and be two NRs. Then, the mapping is called a near-ring homomorphism (NRH) if for all , the following hold:(1).(2).

*Definition 12. *Let and be two nonempty sets and be a function.(1)If is a PFS in , then the preimage of under , denoted by , is the PFS in defined by where , and so on.(2)If is a PFS in , then the image of under , denoted by , is the PFS in defined by , where where .

Theorem 5. *Let and be two NRs and be a homomorphism of onto . If is a PFI of , then is a PFI of .*

*Proof. *Suppose . Then, we can deduce the following inequalities:

For membership grade,Similarly, for abstinence grade, we obtainand for falsity grade, we writeAlso, we acquire the following:Similarly,