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Topological Indices, and Applications of Graph Theory

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Volume 2021 |Article ID 6690053 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6690053

Aftab Hussain, Muhammad Numan, Nafisa Naz, Saad Ihsan Butt, Adnan Aslam, Asfand Fahad, "On Topological Indices for New Classes of Benes Network", Journal of Mathematics, vol. 2021, Article ID 6690053, 7 pages, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6690053

On Topological Indices for New Classes of Benes Network

Academic Editor: Ahmet Sinan Cevik
Received01 Dec 2020
Revised17 Dec 2020
Accepted22 Dec 2020
Published19 Jan 2021

Abstract

Topological indices (TIs) transform a molecular graph into a number. The TIs are a vital tool for quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and quantity structure property relationship (QSPR). In this paper, we constructed two classes of Benes network: horizontal cylindrical Benes network and vertical cylindrical Benes network obtained by identification of vertices of first rows with last row and first column with last column of Benes network, respectively. We derive analytical close formulas for general Randić connectivity index, general Zagreb, first and the second Zagreb (and multiplicative Zagreb), general sum connectivity, atom-bond connectivity (), and geometric arithmetic index of the two classes of Benes networks. Also, the fourth version of and the fifth version of indices are computed for these classes of networks.

1. Introduction

The processing nodes in an interconnection network are the multiprocessor used to build a network of homogeneously same processor memory pairs. Programs are compiled and executed through message sending. Considerable importance to the architecture and utilization of multiprocessor interconnection network is due to low cost, more efficient microprocessors, and chips [1]. Interconnection networks resembled the communication pattern of the natural scenario, which make it more valuable and important. Most of the networks are interconnected and dependent on each other which need to be reviewed for the future work.

Graphs are used to design interconnected networks in a very natural way, in which the processors or components represent vertices and edges represent the communication links, e.g., fiber optic cables. The way in which all these components work will be carried out by incidence functions. Graphs show the topological properties of the networks. Therefore, the graph and networks are basically the same in a sense; that is, when we are considering networks, components, and links, we actually speak of graphs, vertices, and edges.

In Fourier transform networks, butterfly graphs are the basic graphs that can accomplish FFT very proficiently. There are series of interconnection patterns and switching stages in a butterfly network that permits inputs to be linked to outputs. The Benes network consists of butterflies connected back to back. The Benes network is known for permutation routing [2]. They are significant multistage interconnection networks, which enjoy striking topologies for communication networks [3]. The use of Benes network is in parallel computing systems such as SP1/SP2, IBM, NEC Cenju-3, and MIT Transit Project. It is also used in the internal structures of optical couplers [4, 5]. There are levels in an -dimensional Benes network where every level has nodes. An -dimensional butterfly is formed between the level 0 to level nodes. The back to back butterflies share the middle level to form a Benes network. We denote an -dimensional Benes by . Figure 1 shows the graph 3-dimensional Benes network .

From now onward, we denote by a connected, simple graph with vertex and edge set by and . Moreover, for , , , and present its degree, neighbors, and sum of degrees. For more details on undefined terminology, we refer the readers to [68].

Several invariants assigned to graphs (or molecular structure) establish correlations between its structure and chemical/physical aspects. These graph invariants are named as topological indices. Several degree-dependent TIs have been formulated so far and are found to be useful in predicting the physical/chemical properties of an underlying molecular structure. For instance, there is a virtuous correlation among the Randi index (RI) and numerous physicochemical features of alkanes including chromatographic retention times, boiling points, and surface areas. The Zagreb indices (ZIs) and its different variants contribute to understand the complexity of (molecular) structures [913], chirality [14], ZE isomerism [15], and heterosystems [16], whilst the overall ZIs show a latent applicability to derive multilinear regression models. The index offers a good model for the strain energy of cycloalkanes and stability of linear and branched alkanes [17, 18]. In this respect, computing different forms of TIs has provided the indicators of such medicinal conduct of numerous compounds and drugs. The mathematical forms of degree-based topological descriptors, which we discuss in this article, are depicted in Table 1. For more details on computation of TIs of different chemical structures, the readers can see [2936].


Topological descriptorsMathematical form

General RI [19]
General ZI [20]
General sum-connectivity index [21]
RI [22, 23]
First ZI [7]
Second ZI [7]
Hyper ZI [24]
First multiplicative ZI [25]
Second multiplicative ZI [25]
ABC index [26]
Geometric arithmetic [27]
Fourth version of ABC index [14]
Fifth version of geometric-arithmetic index [28]

In this paper, we constructed two classes of Benes network, i.e., horizontal cylindrical Benes network and vertical cylindrical Benes network obtained by identification of vertices of first rows with last row and first column with last column of Benes network, respectively. Also, we embed the Benes network on torus denoted by . Figures 2 and 3 show the graph of horizontal and vertical Benes networks, respectively. The graph of embedding of Benes network on torus is shown in Figure 4. We compute , , , , , , , , and indices of these networks. Also, the explicit formula of and indices is computed for these networks.

2. Results for Cylindrical Representation of Benes Network

In this section, we construct two types of cylindrical Benes network by identifying its vertices. First, we identify the vertices of top row to the vertices of bottom row of Benes network . This will result in a cylindrical network, and we call it a horizontal cylindrical Benes network and denote it by . Following the construction, a 3-dimensional horizontal cylindrical Benes network is presented in Figure 2, where the same label to the vertices represents identification of vertices. Clearly, and , respectively. Now, we compute the , , and of horizontal cylindrical Benes network .

Theorem 1. Let be the graph of horizontal cylindrical Benes network (), then

Proof. In graph , we have vertices among which vertices are of degree 2, 2 vertices are of degree 3, vertices are of degree 4, and the remaining vertices are of degree 6. Now, by using the formula of general Zagreb index, we getTo compute the and indices, we need the partition of the edges of based on the degree of the end vertices. This partition is given in Table 1. Using the values from Table 1, we can compute the and indices as follows:The values of first Zagreb, second Zagreb, and hyper-Zagreb indices can be computed from the Theorem 6 by taking the value of .

Corollary 1. Let be the graph of horizontal cylindrical Benes network, thenNext, we compute the , , , and indices of horizontal cylindrical Benes network.


,where (2, 6)(3, 4)(3, 6)(4, 2)(4, 4)

Number of edges442
, where (4, 6)(6, 6)
Number of edges

Theorem 2. Let be the graph of horizontal cylindrical Benes network, then

Proof. The result follows by using the values of the edge partition given in Table 2 to the formulas of the , , , and indices presented in Table 1.
Now, we compute the values and indices of , where . This requires the partition of its edges based on the sum of degree of neighboring vertices of end vertices of each edge. This partition is given in Table 3.


Number of edges

(8, 12)
(12, 16)
(16, 16)

Theorem 3. Let be the graph of Horizontal cylindrical Benes network , then

Proof. Let denotes the number of edges of with and . Then, by using Table 3, and indices can be computed as follows:

This completes the proof.

Next, we consider the vertical identification of the vertices. We identify the vertices on the left column with the corresponding vertices on the right column to form a cylindrical network. We name this network as the vertical cylindrical Benes network and denote it by . The graph of is shown in Figure 3, where the arcs from vertical sides represent vertical sides identification. The r-dimensional vertical cylindrical Benes network has vertices and edges. One can see that is a 4-regular graph. Therefore, the computation of TIs for is straightforward and is presented in the following theorem.

Theorem 4. Let be the graph of vertical cylindrical Benes network, then

3. Results for Toroidal Representation of Benes Network

If we identify the vertices in the top row of to the corresponding vertices of the bottom row, we get a toroidal network. We call this network Toroidal Benes network and denote it by . Figure 4 shows the graph of toroidal Benes network . Clearly, and , respectively. Now, we compute the , , and of toroidal Benes network .

Theorem 5. Let be the graph of toroidal cylindrical Benes network, then

Proof. In graph , we have vertices among which vertices are of degree 4 and the remaining vertices are of degree 6. By using the formula of general Zagreb index, we getTo compute the general Randic and general sum connectivity indices, we need the partition of the edges of based on the degree of the end vertices. This partition is given in Table 4. Using the values from Table 4, we can compute the Randic and general sum connectivity indices as follows:The values of first Zagreb, second Zagreb, and hyper-Zagreb indices can be computed from the Theorem 6 by taking value of and 2.


(),where Number of edges

(4, 4)
(4, 6)
(6, 6)

Corollary 2. Let be the graph of toroidal Benes network, then

Next, we compute the exact values of first multiple Zagreb, second multiple Zagreb, and ABC and GA indices of horizontal cylindrical Benes network.

Theorem 6. Let be the graph of toroidal Benes network, then

Proof. The result follows by using the values of the edge partition given in Table 4 to the formulas of the , , , and indices presented in Table 1.

Now, we compute the values of and indices of , where . This requires the partition of its edges based on the sum of degree of neighboring vertices of end vertices of each edge. This partition is given in Table 5.


Number of edges

(8, 12)
(12, 16)
(16, 16)

Theorem 7. Let be the graph of toroidal Benes network , then

Proof. Let denote the number of edges of with and . Then, by using Table 5, and indices can be computed as follows:This completes the proof.

4. Conclusion and General Remarks

Designing new network structure always attract and open ways for the researchers in the networking and other structural sciences. In this paper, we constructed new classes of Benes networks embedded on the surface of cylinder and torus called horizontal cylindrical Benes network , vertical cylindrical Benes network , and toroidal Benes network . Then, some degree-based TIs are studied for the abovementioned networks. In future, it will help to those who are interested in problems related to interconnected networks and will be able to deal with the complex networks and their topological properties.

Data Availability

No additional data set has been used to support the study.

Disclosure

This research was carried out as a part of the employment of the authors.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.

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Copyright © 2021 Aftab Hussain et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


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