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Hydrodynamic Conditions Effects on Soft-Bottom Subtidal Nearshore Benthic Community Structure and DistributionRead the full article
Journal of Marine Sciences publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of marine sciences including marine biology, oceanography, hydrology, coastal processes, technological developments, climate change, and policy.
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Industrial Marine Fishing in the Face of Climate Change in Peru
Peru’s industrial fishery centers on the Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), which is highly productive due to the marine conditions of the Humboldt Current. However, like elsewhere, the country’s marine fishing industry is linked to climate change. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between industrial marine fishing and climate change in Peru. Correlation and linear regression methods were used. A key variable of climate change is the sea surface temperature (SST). The study found that in Peru during 1997-2020, the higher the SST, the lower the industrial fishing catch (). There is also evidence of an inverse correlation between sea level and industrial catch; i.e., sea level rise would alter marine ecosystems. A positive correlation between landings of industrial marine fishing and exports for nonfood purposes was corroborated, especially fishmeal. The study concludes that the industrial Peruvian anchoveta catch is negatively affected by SST, fishing effort (search time in hours), and catch per unit of effort (CPUE). For the sustainability of Peru’s industrial fishery, climate change adaptation measures, such as a reduction of fishing effort and research on alternative production of fishmeal with unmodified natural inputs without or in combination with anchoveta, should be implemented. For the future, a change in fishing policies is required that replaces anchoveta for fishmeal with a warm-water marine species during strong El Niño events.
Diversity of Fish Species in relation to Climatological Fluctuations in a Coastal River of Bangladesh
In the Sandha river of Bangladesh, we investigated the temporal and geographical fluctuation in species of fish composition and diversity. The extent of our understanding of the fish variety in this river varies greatly on both a temporal and a geographical scale. From July 2021 to June 2022, fish specimens were gathered from five stations using various conventional fishing methods. During the study period, 5118 individuals from 67 species were collected which include 8 orders, 24 families, and 54 genera. Cypriniformes made up the majority of the order (32.84%), whereas Beloniformes and Tetraodontiformes made up the least number of species (1.49% each). Six species were listed as endangered (8.96%), seven as vulnerable (10.45%), nine as near threatened (13.43%), forty-three as least concern (64.18%), one with data deficient (1.49%), and one as not evaluated (1.49%) in Bangladesh. In order to quantify the temporal and geographical changes in community composition, diversity indices were calculated and put to use. Three (temperature, humidity, and rainfall) out of the four environmental factors (temperature, humidity, rainfall, and photoperiod) had a big impact on how species were distributed. At a similarity level of 79% and 75.5% separation, 2 substantial clusters were seen in the case of stations and 2 large clusters were detected in the case of months, respectively. However, at a similarity threshold of 20% separation, three different groups of fish species were found. Our research offers the most recent status data on fish distribution in the Sandha river. The knowledge acquired from this research is crucial for creating protection and management plans that will promote the long-term viability of fishery resources in the Sandha river and its nearby coastal tributaries.
Seasonal and Spatial Variability of Chlorophyll-a in Response to ENSO and Ocean Current in the Maritime Boundary of Bangladesh
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and its correlation with different parameters are one of the major indicators to understand marine ecosystems. This study was conducted to explore the seasonal and spatial variability of Chl-a at three different stations (onshore, midshore, and offshore) across the maritime boundary of Bangladesh in the northern BoB with its response to the surface current speed and recent ENSO (El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation) events by using satellite data. Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) aqua satellite level-3 data of Chl-a was used in this study. Ocean currents datasets were obtained from the Asia-Pacific Data Research Center (APDRC) live access service, LAS8.6.13 of NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), whereas the SST anomalies dataset was collected from NOAA Climate Prediction Center. This study revealed that the onshore region showed the highest (1.121 mgm-3) abundance of Chl-a, whereas the offshore region showed the lowest (0.136 mgm-3). The offshore and midshore regions showed a homogenous distribution of Chl-a, whereas the observed trend of seasonal fluctuation was southwest monsoon > postmonsoon > northeast monsoon > premonsoon. There is a seasonal variation in the relationship between Chl-a and surface current speed, with moderate correlations during northeast (Dec-Feb) and premonsoon (Mar-May). The effect of ENSO on Chl-a was observed as insignificant () in the northern BoB. However, Chl-a variability in response to ENSO events across the northern region of BoB requires more investigation.
Seasonal Migration Zone of Skipjack Tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) in the South Java Sea Using Multisensor Satellite Remote Sensing
Skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) is the most dominating tuna species caught in the Indian Ocean. However, tuna fishermen in the Indian Ocean still face difficulties determining potential skipjack tuna fishing grounds due to limited geographic information. An attempt to improve information regarding potential skipjack tuna fishing grounds is through modeling the SST, SSC, SSH, and SSS oceanographic parameters with skipjack tuna distribution using GIS. The characteristics of the skipjack tuna habitat can be found through the generalized additive model (GAM) statistical analysis using data of skipjack tuna catch and oceanographic parameters from satellite imagery. The integrated GIS and GAM methods can improve the study of the habitat of skipjack tuna species. Therefore, this research is aimed at analyzing the condition and SST, SSC, SSH, and SSS variations in 2016-2021 in the South Java Sea; at predicting the correlation of SST, SSC, SSH, and SSS towards skipjack tuna catch in 2016-2021 in the South Java Sea using GAM; and at creating a map of skipjack tuna seasonal migration zones. The data included skipjack tuna catches, number of trips, and skipjack tuna fishing coordinates in 2016-2021 from PPS Cilacap and PPP Pondokdadap. The oceanographic parameter data in 2016-2021 was derived from Aqua MODIS level 3 (SST and SSC) and CMEMS (SSH and SSS) satellite imagery. The results showed that the average values of oceanographic parameters at skipjack tuna fishing ground coordinates in the South Java Sea (2016-2021) were SST (26.050-30.816°C), SSC (0.094-0.564 mg/m3), SSH (0.268-0.639 m), and SSS (33.075-34.514 psu). The best GAM modeling was the combination of four oceanographic parameter variables with an AIC value of 45357.92. Skipjack tuna in the South Java Sea migrates southeast during the west monsoon season to the first transitional season and tends to migrate northwest during the east monsoon season to the second transitional season.
Changes in Abiotic Drivers of Green Sea Urchin Demographics following the Loss of a Keystone Predator
Sea urchin population demographics can respond to changes in keystone species abundances, with the magnitude of these responses varying depending on environmental influences. In this study, sea urchin populations were surveyed across 15 Aleutian archipelago islands over a 30-year period to understand how patterns of sea urchin demography (density, biomass, and size structure) varied through different ecological regimes that were caused by changes in the abundance of sea otters, a keystone species in this system. To examine long-term changes in sea urchin demographics, four time periods across the recent decline of sea otters were examined: during sea otter presence (1987-1994), nearing absence at the end of the decline (1997-2000), 10 years postdecline (2008-2010), and 15-20 years following the loss of sea otters from the ecosystem (2014-2017). Our results show that when sea otters were broadly present, sea urchin demographics were generally similar across the archipelago, with few urchins that had large-sized bodies. During this time, bottom-up environmental controls were muted relative to top-down forces from keystone predation. However, as sea otters declined and remained absent from the system, abiotic factors became more influential on sea urchin biomass, density, and size structure. In particular, differences among island groups during these periods were correlated with variation in ocean temperature, bathymetric complexity, and habitat availability. Sea urchin recruitment also varied among island groups, corresponding to ecoregions delineated by oceanic passes across the archipelago. The functional extinction of sea otters revealed an increasing influence of abiotic forcing in the absence of top-down control. This study further highlights the importance of understanding how keystone predators regulate herbivore demographics.
Three-Year Closure of Fishing Seasons as a Management Tool for the Omani Abalone, Haliotis mariae, Fishery in the Sultanate of Oman
Data from underwater surveys conducted between 2009 and 2021 were analyzed to determine the effect of closed fishing seasons on the density and size composition of Omani abalone, in the main fishing areas (Mirbat, Sadah, Hadbin, and Hasik). The average density of abalones, the abundance of mature and legal size abalone, and the average abalone size increased significantly after a 3-year closure (2008-2010). From 2012 to 2021, abalone density and size decreased despite four 1-2 years of closed fishing seasons. The density of mature abalone after 2011 was below the minimum spawning density of Haliotidae. Abalone densities were found to be relatively high in Sadah and Hadbin but very low in Mirbat and critical conditions in Hasik. Lack in regulations’ enforcement, overlap between fishing and reproduction season, and the uncontrolled number of divers are probably the main reasons for the decline in abalone abundance and size. Future fishing closure must be extended for at least three years, and abalone harvest in Mirbat and Hasik should be banned for at least five years. The number of divers must be regulated, and changing the fishing season must be evaluated. It is necessary to identify if the population is sustainable, threatened, or recovering, by studying more biological aspects of the Omani abalone, including minimum spawning density, abalone aggregation, and recruitment levels at each fishing ground. These studies will help the authorities to decide when fishing must stop to avoid any further reduction in the abalone densities. It is important to understand the socioeconomic status of abalone diver’s communities in Oman for better management and development.
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