Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2011, Article ID 969173, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/969173
Research Article

The Effect of a Sublethal Temperature Elevation on the Structure of Bacterial Communities Associated with the Coral Porites compressa

1School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, P.O. Box 1346, Kaneohe, HI 96744, USA
2Department of Zoology, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
3Emmett Interdisciplinary Program in Environment and Resources, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA

Received 15 July 2010; Accepted 30 September 2010

Academic Editor: Kim Selkoe

Copyright © 2011 Jennifer L. Salerno et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. K. D. Lafferty, J. W. Porter, and S. E. Ford, “Are diseases increasing in the ocean?” Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, vol. 35, pp. 31–54, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Harvell, E. Jordán-Dalhgren, S. Merkel et al., “Coral disease, environmental drivers and the balance between coral and microbial associates,” Oceanography, vol. 20, pp. 172–195, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  3. C. D. Harvell, C. E. Mitchell, J. R. Ward et al., “Climate warming and disease risks for terrestrial and marine biota,” Science, vol. 296, no. 5576, pp. 2158–2162, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. R. Ward and K. D. Lafferty, “The elusive baseline of marine disease: are diseases in ocean ecosystems increasing?” PLoS Biology, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 542–547, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. K. G. Kuta and L. L. Richardson, “Ecological aspects of black band disease of corals: relationships between disease incidence and environmental factors,” Coral Reefs, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 393–398, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. J. Jones, J. Bowyer, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and L. L. Blackall, “Dynamics of a temperature-related coral disease outbreak,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 281, pp. 63–77, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. M. Cervino, R. L. Hayes, S. W. Polson et al., “Relationship of Vibrio species infection and elevated temperatures to yellow blotch/band disease in Caribbean corals,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 11, pp. 6855–6864, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. Y. Ben-Haim and E. Rosenberg, “A novel Vibrio sp. pathogen of the coral Pocillopora damicornis,” Marine Biology, vol. 141, no. 1, pp. 47–55, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. E. Brandt and J. W. Mcmanus, “Disease incidence is related to bleaching extent in reef-building corals,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 10, pp. 2859–2867, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Ben-Haim, E. Banim, A. Kushmaro, Y. Loya, and E. Rosenberg, “Inhibition of photosynthesis and bleaching of zooxanthellae by the coral pathogen Vibrio shiloi,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 223–229, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. E. Banin, T. Israely, M. Fine, Y. Loya, and E. Rosenberg, “Role of endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and coral mucus in the adhesion of the coral-bleaching pathogen Vibrio shiloi to its host,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 199, no. 1, pp. 33–37, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. P. Lesser, J. C. Bythell, R. D. Gates, R. W. Johnstone, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Are infectious diseases really killing corals? Alternative interpretations of the experimental and ecological data,” Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, vol. 346, no. 1-2, pp. 36–44, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. D. Ainsworth, M. Fine, G. Roff, and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Bacteria are not the primary cause of bleaching in the Mediterranean coral Oculina patagonica,” ISME Journal, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 67–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. N. Knowlton and F. Rohwer, “Multispecies microbial mutualisms on coral reefs: the host as a habitat,” American Naturalist, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. S51–S62, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. F. Rohwer, V. Seguritan, F. Azam, and N. Knowlton, “Diversity and distribution of coral-associated bacteria,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 243, pp. 1–10, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. H. Ducklow and R. Mitchell, “Bacterial populations and adaptations in the mucus layers on living corals,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 715–725, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. Wafar, S. Wafar, and J. J. David, “Nitrification in reef corals,” Limnology & Oceanography, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 725–730, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. F. Rohwer, M. Breitbart, J. Jara, F. Azam, and N. Knowlton, “Diversity of bacteria associated with the Caribbean coral Montastraea franksi,” Coral Reefs, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 85–91, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. P. Lesser, C. H. Mazel, M. Y. Gorbunov, and P. G. Falkowski, “Discovery of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria in corals,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5686, pp. 997–1000, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. K. B. Ritchie, “Regulation of microbial populations by coral surface mucus and mucus-associated bacteria,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 322, pp. 1–14, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. I. Kline, N. M. Kuntz, M. Breitbart, N. Knowlton, and F. Rohwer, “Role of elevated organic carbon levels and microbial activity in coral mortality,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 314, pp. 119–125, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. S. Klaus, I. Janse, J. M. Heikoop, R. A. Sanford, and B. W. Fouke, “Coral microbial communities, zooxanthellae and mucus along gradients of seawater depth and coastal pollution,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1291–1305, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. V. Thurber, D. Willner-Hall, B. Rodriguez-Mueller et al., “Metagenomic analysis of stressed coral holobionts,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 8, pp. 2148–2163, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. Pantos, R. P. Cooney, M. D. A. Le Tissier, M. R. Barer, A. G. O'Donnell, and J. C. Bythell, “The bacterial ecology of a plague-like disease affecting the Caribbean coral Montastrea annularis,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 370–382, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. J. Jones and O. Hoegh-Guldberg, “Effects of cyanide on coral photosynthesis: implications for identifying the cause of coral bleaching and for assessing the environmental effects of cyanide fishing,” Marine Ecology Progress Series, vol. 177, pp. 83–91, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. Maxwell and G. N. Johnson, “Chlorophyll fluorescence—a practical guide,” Journal of Experimental Botany, vol. 51, no. 345, pp. 659–668, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. E. Warner, W. K. Fitt, and G. W. Schmidt, “Damage to photosystem II in symbiotic dinoflagellates: a determinant of coral bleaching,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 14, pp. 8007–8012, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. T. Suzuki, O. Béjà, L. T. Taylor, and E. F. DeLong, “Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA operons from uncultivated coastal marine bacterioplankton,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 323–331, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. W.-T. Liu, T. L. Marsh, H. Cheng, and L. J. Forney, “Characterization of microbial diversity by determining terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms of genes encoding 16S rRNA,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 4516–4522, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. A. Osborne, G. N. Rees, Y. Bernstein, and P. H. Janssen, “New threshold and confidence estimates for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of complex bacterial communities,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 1270–1278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. R. Clarke and R. N. Gorley, PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 2006.
  32. M. J. Anderson, R. N. Gorely, and K. R. Clarke, PERMANOVA+ for PRIMER: Guide to Software and Statistical Methods, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 2008.
  33. K. R. Clarke and R. M. Warwick, Change in Marine Communities: An Approach to Statistical Analysis and Interpretation, PRIMER-E, Plymouth, UK, 2nd edition, 2001.
  34. R. N. Shepard, “The analysis of proximities: multidimensional scaling with an unknown distance function. I.,” Psychometrika, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 125–140, 1962. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. B. Kruskal, “Multidimensional scaling by optimizing goodness of fit to a nonmetric hypothesis,” Psychometrika, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 1–27, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. J. Frias-Lopez, J. S. Klaus, G. T. Bonheyo, and B. W. Fouke, “Bacterial community associated with black band disease in corals,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 70, no. 10, pp. 5955–5962, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Pantos and J. C. Bythell, “Bacterial community structure associated with white band disease in the elkhorn coral Acropora palmata determined using culture-independent 16S rRNA techniques,” Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 79–88, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. L. Coles and Y. H. Fadlallah, “Reef coral survival and mortality at low temperatures in the Arabian Gulf: new species-specific lower temperature limits,” Coral Reefs, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 231–237, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. L. Jokiel and S. L. Coles, “Response of Hawaiian and other Indo-Pacific reef corals to elevated temperature,” Coral Reefs, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 155–162, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. B. E. Brown, “Coral bleaching: causes and consequences,” Coral Reefs, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. S129–S138, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus