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Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2012, Article ID 382498, 5 pages
Research Article

Raphides in the Uncalcified Siphonous Green Seaweed, Codium minus (Schmidt) P. C. Silva

Dauer Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Department of Biology, The University of Miami, P.O. Box 249118, Coral Gables, FL 33124, USA

Received 17 February 2012; Revised 12 April 2012; Accepted 16 April 2012

Academic Editor: Wen-Xiong Wang

Copyright © 2012 Jeffrey S. Prince. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The vacuole of utricles, the outermost cell layer of the siphonous green seaweed, Codium minus, had numerous single needles and needle bundles. The crystals composing each needle appeared arranged in a twisted configuration, both ends were pointed, and each needle was contained in a matrix or membrane; bundles of needles appeared enclosed by a matrix. Chemical and electron diffraction analysis indicated that the needles consisted of calcium oxalate. This is the first paper on terrestrial plant-like raphides in an alga.