Table 1: Examples of behavioral changes observed in cetacean species in response to whale-watching traffic.

Behaviour changeSpeciesReference

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [3438]
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus [39, 40]
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis [41]
Surfacing/divingCostero, Sotalia guianensis [42]
Killer whale, Orcinus orca [43]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [44]
Fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus [45]
Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus [46]

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [37]
“Active” behavior (e.g., tail slapping and beaching)Commerson’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus commersonii [47]
Killer whale, Orcinus orca [48]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [49]

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [50, 51]
AcousticKiller whale, Orcinus orca [52]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [53]
Sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus [54]

Group size or cohesionCommon bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [55, 56]
Costero, Sotalia guianensis [42]

Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus [40]
Swimming speedSpinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris [57]
Killer whale[43, 58]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [59]

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [55, 56]
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus [39]
Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin, Sousa chinensis [41]
Swimming directionSpinner dolphin, Stenella longirostris [57]
Costero, Sotalia guianensis [60]
Killer whale, Orcinus orca [43, 58, 61]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [49, 59]

Common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus [6265]
Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops aduncus[66]
Short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis [67]
Costero, Sotalia guianensis [68]
Altered feeding or restingDusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus [47, 69]
Commerson’s dolphin, Cephalorhynchus comersonii [47]
Risso’s dolphin, Grampus griseus [70]
Killer whale, Orcinus orca [71, 72]
Humpback whale, Megaptera novaeangliae [73]