Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Journal of Marine Biology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 430683, 6 pages
Research Article

Estimating Otter Numbers Using Spraints: Is It Possible?

1International Otter Survival Fund, Isle of Skye IV49 9DE, UK
2Kensington School, Carrer dels Cavallers 31/33 (Pedralbes), 08034 Barcelona, Spain

Received 13 September 2013; Revised 2 December 2013; Accepted 10 December 2013; Published 19 January 2014

Academic Editor: Oscar Iribarne

Copyright © 2014 Paul Yoxon and Kirsty Yoxon. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. T. Jones and D. Jones, Otter Survey of Wales 2002, Environment Agency of Wales, Bristol, UK, 2004.
  2. H. Kruuk, “Scent marking by otters (Lutra lutra): signaling the use of resources,” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 133–140, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. Environment Agency, “More otters living in the North West than ever before,” August 2011,
  4. E. Sherrard-Smith and E. A. Chadwick, “Age structure of the otter (Lutra lutra) population in England and Wales, and problems with cementum ageing,” IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  5. H. Kruuk, J. W. H. Conroy, U. Glimmerveen, and E. J. Ouwerkerk, “The use of spraints to survey populations of otters Lutra lutra,” Biological Conservation, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 187–194, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. W. H. Conroy and D. D. French, “The use of spraints to monitor populations of otters,” Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, no. 58, pp. 247–262, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  7. C. F. Mason and S. M. Macdonald, “The use of spraints for surveying otter Lutra lutra populations: an evaluation,” Biological Conservation, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 167–177, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Yoxon, Geology and otter distribution on the Isle of Skye [Ph.D. thesis], Open University, Milton Keynes, UK, 1999.
  9. H. Kruuk, Otters Ecology, Behaviour and Conservation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2006.
  10. H. A. H. Jansman, P. R. F. Chanin, and J. F. Dallas, “Monitoring otter populations by DNA typing of spraints,” IUCN Otter Specialist Group Bulletin, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 12–18, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  11. C. Prigioni, L. Remonti, A. Balestrieri et al., “Estimation of European otter (Lutra lutra) population size by fecal DNA typing in southern Italy,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 855–858, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. M. Hung, S. H. Li, and L. L. Lee, “Faecal DNA typing to determine the abundance and spatial organisation of otters (Lutra lutra) along two stream systems in Kinmen,” Animal Conservation, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 301–311, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. Kruuk, A. Moorhouse, J. W. H. Conroy, L. Durbin, and S. Frears, “An estimate of numbers and habitat preferences of otters Lutra lutra in Shetland, UK,” Biological Conservation, vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 241–254, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. D. Jenkins and J. W. H. Conroy, “Methodology for studying habitats used by coastal otters,” Annual Report, Institute of Terrestrial Ecology, Brighton, UK, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  15. G. S. Parry, O. Bodger, R. A. Macdonald, and D. W. Forman, “A systematic re-sampling approach to assess the probability of detecting otters Lutra lutra using spraint surveys on small lowland rivers,” Ecological Informatics, vol. 14, pp. 64–70, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  16. S. Erlinge, “Territory of the otter (Lutra lutra),” Oikos, vol. 19, pp. 81–89, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  17. C. F. Mason and S. M. Macdonald, Otter Ecology and Conservation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1986.
  18. D. Georgiev, “Seasonality in marking activity of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in Southern Bulgaria,” in Proceedings of the Anniversary Scientific Conference of Ecology, I. G. Velcheva and A. G. Tsekov, Eds., pp. 236–240, Plovdiv, Bulgaria, November 2008.